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RUSSIA XXI

The Russian Political Economist of the 19th Century (translated by I.Diakonova)

The author deals with N.Mordvinov, the thinker and statesman. It is unknown to the general public that as early as in the very beginning of the 19th century there were Russian scientists who contributed to the world economic science. Having meticulously studied works of foreign economists, Mordvinov applied their discoveries to Russian reality and developed these discoveries, with the Russian peculiarities taken into consideration. According to the author, Mordvinov's essay on private provincial banks is of particular interest, for Mordvinov in that work stated his opinion on the monetary system and budget, i.e., on the issues which were within the sphere of his official duties (for some time Mordvinov was the chief of the State Economy Department of the Russian State Council).

1953: Was the Deportation of the Soviet Jews in Prospect?

The author examines the version that the "voluntary yet compulsory" resettlement of Jews who, due to I.V.Stalin's order, were planned to be moved from the European part of the USSR to distant parts of Siberia and Far East. This version has been widely spread in the literature for several decades. Principal components of this version, sources on which it is based and queries it raises are summed up. The attention is focused on discussion of this problem at the international symposium "The late Stalinism and the Jewish question" which was held in June, 1998, at Eistatt Catholic University, FRG. Arguments and counterarguments adduced in presentations of G.V.Kostyrchenko and V.P.Naumov, the Russian participants of the symposium. The author draws the conclusion that both parties of this protracted dispute have solid arguments as well as less convincing ones. According to the author, the question put in the title of this article cannot be answered unequivocally as yet. The facts given in the postscriptum and ascertained after the symposium confirm this conclusion.

On Overcoming the Economic Crisis in Russia

In the short essay the author deals with issues related to the urgent measures that are to be taken to come out of the crisis and to promote right tax and budgetary policies, administrative reform and reform of pensions.
In the commemoration tribute to Irakli G. Tsereteli who was born 120 years ago the author points out that Tsereteli, the Social Democrat, a prominent public activist and statesman of Russia, a founding father and a leader of the first independent Democratic Republic of Georgia, is one of those figures whose deeds and achievements are still judged in terms of the previous epoch official historiography stereotypes and myths. Because of the current political needs not insignificant part of the present day political scientists and historians prefer rather to rely upon these stereotypes and myths than to repudiate them. Tsereteli’s fate is amazing. He was adamant in his belief that all «alive forces of the nation» might consolidate at the moment of a social revolution and made this belief the guiding principle of his activities from the time when he formulated his position as the leader of the Social-Democrats fraction in the Second State Duma to his consistent attempts to implement the politics of consolidation after the February revolution, 1917. Tsereteli appealed to reason even at moments when passions were reigning supreme around him. Though everything Tsereteli strove to build proved to be a «a construction based on sands» his own experience of revolutionary activities let him as early as in 1946 proclaim «the protection of personal rights and the free development of personality» as the principal value of Socialism.

Politics seen through prism of poetry

There are two types of perception of historical events: investigation and personal experience or perception by feeling. The political lyrics as opposed to rhymed rhetoric emerged on if an event is experienced by a poet, felt by a poet and is appropriated by a poet as a fact of his own spiritual life. Pushkin’s verses devoted to historical and political events are precisely the political lyrics. Therefore, political declarations proclaimed in these verses may be considered only in the context of their lyrical content. If we look at such Pushkin’s verses as «Stances» and «To the slanderers of Russia» from such standpoint we see that political opinions and appraisals proclaimed in these verses are, to a considerable extent, determined by politically neutral reasons. In a similar way, pamphlets and epigrams (on Vorontsov and Uvarov) can be explained not only by the poet’s unfriendly feelings to these persons or by his political position but, rather, by his concepts of art and poetry. The politics seen through the prism of poetry acquires another appearance and reveals aspects that might be irrelevant for contemporaries but have a great historical meaning and significance.

A.P.Bogolyubov and the Cause of his Life

It is the publication of the letter on establishment of Radischev fine arts museum in Saratov and its founder, the professor of painting and a grandson to Radischev A.P.Bogolyubov whose energy, initiative and funds were the actual foundation of this artistic institution which turned out to be the first free access provincial museum and the school of drawing.
Where the main meaning of the American-Iraqi war lies? Neither the level of military threats, nor oil consequences or anti-Americanism proves to be the fundamental result and effect of the war but the fact that now it is impossible to get into the «house» we sought to get into so passionately (i.e., into the so called Western community). Actually a war between the USA and Europe is ripening. At the present time there are three feasible centers of power in the world: China, Europe (provided it will succeed in unification) and Islam (provided it will succeed in unification). Russia is no longer the superpower and a center of power. Disintegration of the USSR brought about collapse of the world order and destruction of Communism, alternative Western project the carrier of which the USSR was. Destruction of Communism turned out to be the triumph of anti-Western forces that now are free to work, under the banner of globalism, at destruction of liberalism as well as the USA. Globalism eliminates national sovereignties and will become the grave-digger of the European culture. The master of globalization is the grand political post-modern which implies, at first, the power of concealed obscurantism and then a new type of civilization, i.e. anti-civilization. Perhaps, Islam will gain from globalization while Russia will crumble away in it. Russia has either form an alliance with Islam and challenge to the West or to fight against Islam and look for allies in the West. The war in Iraq is a way, though inadequate to plug in holes through which the East penetrates the West. The Western projects needs alternatives aimed at the future. Otherwise the world will either burn in a nuclear war or decay.

Osya, Kisa and Tikhon visited this place

Reviews written by «Aveskhan of Macedonia, the popular expert» appeared in the Russian education related media in the second half of 1990s. It was precisely the moment when the so called «alternatives» proclaimed by the RF Ministry of education started to bring specific fruits and schools began to get such textbooks that simply could not be reviewed seriously. One could either cry or laugh. Aveskhan of Macedonia preferred the second option (though it was laughter through tears). And the very appearance of this person was connected to «History of Russia up to Peter the Great reign» textbook by A.P.Bogdanov (Moscow, Drofa Publishers, 1996). This textbook suggested the correspondence of «Russian princes» Asan and Aveskhan (both of whom had never existed in the reality) with Alexander of Macedonia which schoolchildren had to study. A lot of such textbooks was published since 1996. All of them were duly decorated with «Recommended by the Ministry of education» stamp. Every time when the Minister of education at press conferences is asked to comment on a next «discovery» from a successive textbook (examples of such «discoveries» are statements like «any bee may become a drone bee» or «Moslems are pagans» or «Ancient Greece was a single centralized state with the capital in Athens» etc.) the Minister puts the blame on unqualified experts, careless authors and publishers, in short, on whomever he likes but not on himself or his officials. It should be emphasized that it is precisely the Ministry which «recommends» or «permits» such obvious, a fortiori nonsense. The problem is why the Ministry recommends this nonsense. There are two feasible alternatives: 1) due to ignorance and professional incompetence; 2) it is done deliberately. A new publication by Aveskhan of Macedonia contains information valuable for a correct answer to the question.

Notes from the Invisible Jews Community’s Life

The article deals with changes in demographic situation at the Arabia peninsula that occurred in the course of a millenium and a half. Initially the peninsula had a dense Hebrew population. Displacement of Hebrew people began after their defeat in the war with the Ethiopian Axum state. The author relates the beginning of the massive persecution of Jews with the emergence of new religion, Islam. By mid-19th century Jews were exterminated in the peninsula, after rise of Wahhabism. This religious current accepts jihad as the only way for resolution of contradictions and applies this methods even to other Moslems, Shiites and Sunnities.
The author compares four Russian reforms: The «Great reform» of 1861, Stolypin’s reform of 1906, the «Black redistribution» which was launched by the Decree on Land of 1917 and the New economic police introduced in 1921. The authors argues that the first two of these reforms were very well thought out from the scientific point of view and calculated but absolutely disregarded opinions and notions of the peasantry. These reforms were carried on by a clumsy and cumbersome bureaucratic apparatus and by violent means. Thus their implementation was delayed and their were doomed to failure. Reform of 1861 became a prologue to revolution of 1905 and Stolypin’s reform became a prologue to revolution of 1917. The Decree on Land was composed on the basis of village general meetings' resolutions that were made by peasants themselves. The Decree met and satisfied peasants' interests. That made it possible to carry out redistribution of land in a few months and thus to settle the land issue, even if by cruel methods. The same should be said of the NEP. The NEP which took into account demands of the peasantry allowed drawing Russia out of the profound crisis in the shortest time. According to the author these historical lessons have not been understood by the present day Russian reformers. The fact to a considerable extent explains the low efficiency of these reforms.
Despite its characteristically sharp essayistic tenor and scoffing passages, this article is a quite serious attempt at defining an historical-sociological meaning of the present moment of our history. More particularly, the subject matter is, on one hand, the debacle of «democratic forces» and strengthening of autocratic rule, and on the other — a rehabilitation of the normal, civilized ethic, human at large as well as in economic behavior, which was repressed by an ethos of the so called «primary accumulation». An organic interconnection of the two tendencies is demonstrated, along with an exposure of fundamental falsity of the «parochially liberal» outlook on the development of modern civilization, which prevailed up to now in the mind of Russian powers that be and which largely retains its sway.

«... Witnessing His Breaking Away from the Church...»

Hundred years elapsed since excommunication of Leo Tolstoi but the interest to the event has not extinmguished as yet. The author undertakes the attempt to reconstruct Tolostoi own thoughts and feelings aroused by his excommunication. To attain the goal Tolstoi’s attitude to the Church and faith in general is considered. The author comes to conclusion that the basis of L. N. Tolstoi’s own ethical and religious teaching is the belief that a human being has to treat other persons in a way he would wish to be treated by other people. It is a rule which is easily explained by the reason, and Tolstoi elevates this principle to the universal law level, to the level of irreal belief. Following his convictions Tolstoi would have to regard the Synod’s decree with a contempt and indignation. And his «Reply to the Synod» proves that Tolstoi reacted to the decree precisely in this way. However the author points out that it is wrong to explore Tolstoi’s outlook only on basis of «The Reply». Such approach would be too one-sided, biased, distorted. The author finds signs of deep spiritual movements experienced by Tolstoi in his diaries and correspondence. The author is disposed to suggest that the cause of the inner shock experienced by Tolstoi were doubts in the system of moral values created by himself. Tolstoi’s diaries for the period contain information on these doubts.

The Transitional Ages in the Interior of the World History: Musing on Pages of the Unique Book

The article is dedicated to the problems of the place and role of transitional ages in the interior of the world history. Written in a free manner of a historian’s thoughts, it is based on the data of the collective work «The transitional ages in the social aspect. History and the present» (publishing house «Nauka», 2003). The book united the works of the 28 specialists — historians who specialize in different countries and times from Antiquity and the «great migration of folks» (the 4th-7th cent.) to the second «great migration», caused by the disintegration of the USSR. The concept of a transitional age is studied in the article as a complicated, many-sided inner contradiction. It is a very contrasting phenomenon of the «recoding» of a social system from one condition into another. There is an inner logic behind its individual unique demonstrations — the logic of the development of transformational processes. According to the authors opinion it can be called the «genetic code» of the social transit.
The author, Russia’s noted expert on interpretation narrates the dramatic story of interpretation and diplomatic interpreters in the 20th century in the USSR from V. Lenin to V. Putin when history was made and often interpreters were the only (and silent) witnesses or even contributed to it. The English voices of Soviet leaders – V.Berezhkov (Stalin), V.Sukhodrev (Khrushchev), P.Palazhchenko (Gorbachev) reverberated across the world in an assertive and skillful way. Many historical vignettes are provided for the first time.

Saga of Slav Rurik and Other Valets Taught the Russian History in Pure Vologda Sanskrit

Introduction of so called «concetrical» system of instruction in the secondary school has been one of the most important educational «reforms» of 1990s. Nowadays the curriculum consists of two separate «concentrates» which has to be learned twice: in the incomplete school training which is mandatory for everyone and then in the higher secondary school (in the 10th and 11th classes) for students intending to enlist higher education institutions. One could find certain logic in this transformation: for example, it is easier to explain the serious scientific problems researchers of ancient Russian history confront with to 16 year old student than to a younger student provided someone really intends to discuss scientific problems with students. However new textbooks for higher secondary schools proved to be by far more primitive and remote from the contemporary science than textbooks for younger children. Therefore the author could not pass by one of the most popular textbooks for the Russian secondary school. «The history of Russia from the ancient times…» for the 10th class is published by a major publishing company and has got a recommendation from the Ministry of education. Only extra print run of the textbook indicated in the imprint data comprises 100 thousand copies. How does the textbook deepen and improve knowledge of history school students have obtained in the «first concentrate»? How does the textbook content relate to the most recent achievements of scientists, in particular, to works of Novgorod, Smolensk and Ladoga archeological expeditions that have seriously changed our perceptions of the most ancient period of the Russian history?

«I Wish My Eyes Would Not See All That!» On a Scientist’s Strange Confession and on Certain Problems of Scientific Schools’ Emergence

In history of Russia, the imperial as well as the Soviet, the Military medical academy (MMA), together with Moscow University, has always been the leading center of medical science and education. In 1920s its faculty was decorated with names of prominent representatives of medical and biological science: physiologist I.P.Pavlov, pharmacologist N.P.Kravkov, anatomist V.N.Tonkov, clinicians including surgeon S.P.Fedorov, therapists N.Ya.Chistov and M.V.Yankovski etc. Activity of these remarkable people set the exceptionally high level of the Academy’s scientific output. Such was the historical medical canon. As any canon it is not devoid of certain mythologizing and has reverse side. Correspondence between I.P.Pavlov and N.P.Kravkov which is being published by V.I.Borodulin, the historian of medical science, is an eloquent testimony of the real moral and work climate which prevailed in that period in MMA (and, obviously, not only in this institution). V.I.Borodulin also examines the role which has the civil position of a scientific school founder and some other issues of scientific schools formations.
It is a publication of «Paths of struggle against the world crisis», the report delivered by V.S.Voitinski, a famous Russian Social-Democrat and economist, at the meeting of the Berlin club of the Russian Social Democrats in November, 1931. The world economic crisis of 1929−1933 made the Social Democrats to ponder the issue of new tasks that new conditions set for the Social Democrats. In particular, it was the moment to decide whether the Russian Social Democrats had to battle against the crisis or not and whether they had to consider the crisis as the crisis of the capitalism. Theoretical propositions, conclusions and suggestions Voitinski expressed, inter alia, in the report published here remain to be of current concern.

On new Approaches to Research and Teaching of Russia’s Foreign Policy

In her review of «Foreign policy of Russia and international systems: 1700 to 1918» by Professor V.V.Degoev the author calls attention to the fact that the books is not a simple textbook on history of foreign policy and the European diplomacy. It is a genuine investigation which gives an impetus to further study of history of foreign relations. The work has obvious importance not just in scientific way as well as in political sense, particularly so in connection with the goal Russia faces nowadays: that of preservation of its own unity. The author also notes the exciting manner of narrative which is made in brilliant standard Russian language.

On the Role of Science in the Contemporary Society

From the Renaissance on science pushed religion to the background and occupied the leading position in the humankind’s worldview. From the 18th century to the mid-19th century scientific discoveries followed each other in succession while practice followed in the science’s track taking these discoveries up and realizing them in public production. However thereafter science began to switch over technological improvement of practice. Notion of ‘scientific and technological revolution' was replaced with notion of ‘technological revolution' and science is getting to be more and more oriented to practice. In the past development of science provided the humankind with the industrial revolution. That determined transition of humankind to the post-industrial epoch which is characterized with instability and dynamism of political, economic, social, technological and other conditions. Practice has to re-adjust itself to permanently changing conditions. Therefore the innovative practice has become the principal characteristic of the contemporary period. If earlier, under a relatively long-term stability of way of life the public practice could wait for until science developed new recommendations and designers and industrial engineers developed and tested respective designs and technologies and only then these innovations would be introduced into practice nowadays such waiting has become senseless. Therefore practice has headed for another direction: practical workers have begun to create innovative models of social, economic, technological etc. systems. That has brought about authorial models of manufacturing, companies, technologies, methods etc. But to perform in such capacity practical workers need the scientific training, scientific education and need them more and more. Change of science’s role in the contemporary society and closing-in movement of science and practice create and will bring about significant impact on all aspects of life: politics, economics, social sphere, education, culture and so on.
«The Russian history» textbook by G.A.Eliseev, S.V.Alekseev and D.M.Volodikhin was published in 2006 and was allowed to educational institutions by the Russian Federation Ministry of education (already renewed, reorganized ministry). On behalf of all Russian science the ministry has certified with the state seal those amazing discoveries that lie in wait of young readers right from the first page of the textbook’s first chapter and onwards. And the ministry has approved the remarkable methodology offered by the authors of the textbook instead of the bleak «positivism». Previously the creative freedom was restrained by requirement of some arguments and evidence, substantiation or at least the precise definition of terms. Now these remnants of the totalitarian regime are dismantled. Aveskhan of Macedonia congratulates the authors of the textbook and their ministerial patrons with the victory they secured.

«The History Calls All of Us for Answer»! Events of 1917 as seen by eyes of contemporaries, masters of the Russian satire and humor

The author considers processes of the pivotal for Russia’s historical destiny events of 1917 as seen by eyes of contemporaries, masters of the Russian satire and humor compared, predominantly at the level of subtext, with events of the 1990s. The latter presents phenomena that are in many ways recognizable and comparable in their external manifestations, even though they have absolutely different roots. The author intends this article in the first instance for those who in learning of the past and present are disposed to broad historical comparisons in identifying «chromosome set» in fabric of events and phenomena of the Russian history. The essence of this «chromosome set» consists in certain algorithm of reiterated and unique, inimitable features in behavior of the historical process subjects. The author thinks that if a researcher moves along this approach he/she may, with some degree of conditionality and metaphoric usage, speak of presence of the Russian historical process «genetic code» which reaches the mental level. In the particular case examined by the author this code implies that feverish pulse which the Russian history acquires when modernization shifts prove to be intertwined with pre-modernization and counter-modernization phenomena. In result of such combination both revolutionary leaps and systemic reforms begin with the inflated hopes and loud overoptimistic declarations and then turn about to be a social and, moreover, civilizational back rush.
The article is devoted to those people who under the hardest circumstances and at the risk of their own life saved people doomed to death. One of the cases related by the author occurred during the WWII, the other occurred after the war but both of them are about people who deserve the name of the righteous.
Heretofore the public education in Russia has been considered to be secular one. However such state of affairs is increasingly questioned. Clerics come to schools and universities. New textbooks are published (pertinent examples are «Islam. Spiritual and Moral Education of Schoolchildren» and «The Orthodox Biology»). Religious organizations are resolute in their claims to perform a peculiar role in moral instruction. All these trends cause intense discussions in the society. Separation is occurring: on one side of the barricade (or rather church fence) secular humanists are gathering, on the other side religious conservatives are rallying. Historian Il’ya Smirnov repeatedly published in ‘Russia XXI' his tongue-in-cheek critical reviews of textbooks where mystics and clerical-monarchical propaganda substitutes for strict scientific knowledge. However in this article the author does not take so resolute position and recognizes that on a wide range of issues believers articulate more humane, responsible and, strange as it may seem, more liberal judgments than their secular opponents. At the same time under the cloak of secular humanism we with increasing frequency find dogmas that have neither scientific nor moral substantiation.
The author analyses strong and weak aspects of the collection published in connection with the jubilee of Contemporary Russian History Museum (former Museum of Revolution) and elucidates problems arising from historical-political character of such museums. The collection is dedicated primarily to history of the museum, to its founders and officers. It enriches understanding of cultural development peculiarities in the Soviet period. Valuable reminiscences about the museum are published for the first time. The author notes that balance of scientific popularization and ideology, information and propaganda in the museum exposition requires a special treatment and expresses his doubts about selection of the museum foundation date and the official name of the museum.

Redzhy Zelnik – Scholar and Rebel from Berkeley

This article is written in memory of Reginald Zelnik (1936−2004), former professor of history at the University of California (Berkeley). Distinguished specialist in Russian studies, he was highly respected by his colleagues and friends both in the USSR and post-Soviet Russia for his innovative approach to the many aspects of the Russian labor movement. Having still retained their pioneering spirit Zelnik`s works keep inspiring scholars in their attempts to penetrate into the depth of the most controversial problems of Russian social developments after 1861.

Public in pre-Soviet Russia.What Can be Gained from Studyof the Entity?

Place of non-governmental organizations in the process of civil society formation in early 20th century Russia, various interpretations of «public' notion, interrelations of public structures and the state are content of a new monograph of A. S. Tumanova which is analyzed in the article. Study of these issues enables us to give an answer to a more wide question whether there was a potential for further modernization of the Russian society or not and whether modernization was interrupted by the WW1 and revolution or not. Material consolidated in the book reveals inconsistency of the pre-revolutionary situation. A. S. Tumanova analyzes factors that influenced the gradual withdrawal of bureaucracy from the total control of the public. However the author thinks that the proper measure of control was not found.
Gerogia goes through very difficult times. Policy of militarization pursued by President Mikhail Saakashvili has ended up with invasion in South Ossetia, military clash with Russia and the complete defeat which brought about the profound systemic crisis. The author scrutinizes the Georgian history through lenses of Georgia interrelationship with Russia and emphasizes that the current policy of Saakashvili aimed at confrontation with the northern neighbor will have disastrous effect on Georgia.

On the Grace-filled Flame and Theological Rationalism

The article is a theological investigation of the Grace-filled Flame based ob analysis of the Orthodox tradition authentic texts, including the Holy Scripture, Books of the Old and New Covenant, Holy Fathers' writings, sacred worship chants. In result of analysis the author comes to the conclusion that the very notion of the Grace-filled Flame being immutable in the course of its existence is the integral attribute of the Orthodox Church spiritual practice and theology. The problem is analyzed in terms of Grigory Palama’s theology. According the hypothesis set forth in the article the Grace-filled Flame is the portent of the Lord and a human being meeting and their spiritual and energetic mergence.

«Feminine Issue» in Prose and Publicist Works of Alexandra Kollontai

The author examines publicist works and prose of the Russian and international movement’s prominent personality, diplomat, political writer and prose writer A.M.Kollontai (nee Domontovich). For the first time she came out as a political writer in «Obrazovanie» magazine (1898). In a series of her works Kollontai set collectivism of the proletarian morality against philosophy of individualism which, according to her, was represented by F.Nitsche. Kollontai devoted a particular attention to problems of women’s equality, of woman’s position within family and at work, of maternity protection. Kollontai linked change of women’s life with the necessity of drastic transformation of the social system. She devoted some of her fiction pieces to the topic of women’s social emancipation and assertion of women’s right to the free choice in love (these works were gathered in «Work bees' love». From a series of «Revolution of feelings and revolution of morals» stories' collection). At the present time Kollontai’s heritage increasingly attracts attention of researchers: historians, specialists in literary studies, sociologists including specialists in the gender issues.

A New Book in the Context of Old Disputes between «Physicists» and «Lyricists»

A scholar has to be cautious with words much in the same manner as a physicist is to be careful with radioactive materials. But the opposite turns out. It is precisely historians, sociologists and art historians bury us in words with elusive meanings, with dozen of different meanings (that are in no way specified) or with no meaning at all. The science is not a heap of facts but a system of knowledge. And if we want to respect social sciences they are to be reduced to a system and be expounded in a way which presupposes distinct and clear, if possible unequivocal terminology. Yu.I.Semenov, specialist in primordial society economy, professor of Moscow physics and technological institute is engaged in this work for many years. In his new book Yu.I.Semenov approaches the subsequent history of Homo sapiens from the same position. The article is a review of Semenov’s new book.

Notes on Herbert Wells, a Globalist Dreamer and a Sharp Realist

The author analyzes certain theoretical conceptions that were advanced by Herbert Wells and are included in his three-volume autobiography recently published in Russia. The particular attention is devoted to Wells' opinions on the future of humankind and to his forecasts that came true or failed. Wells' ‘sketch of the future' is seen through the present day prism. The concluding section of the article is devoted to Wells' thoughts about Russia and his portrait sketches of Lenin, Stalin, Gorky.

The Historical Phenomenology: it is Necessary «Not to Explain but to Understand»

Prospects and problems of the historical science are in the center of attention in the interview given by Professor Yurganov. According to him, the historical science has every chance to become a fundamental science. Such science is not subject to any fluctuation of political moods. It is a tool of their study and not a substantiation of specific values. In this capacity history has no inherent prior beliefs. However it is a key to understanding of any value and cultural continuum while an applied science used for ideological purposes exists and will exist forever. It is necessary only to define limits and do that with understanding for what purposes a study is performed and for what ends it is intended.

The Varangian and Slavs: the Eternal Dispute

The article is a response to L.S.Klein's book «The Varangian dispute. The history of confrontation and arguments of the parties» published in 2009 in Saint-Petersburg by ‘Eurasia‘ publishing house. «The Norsemen problem» or «The Vrangian issue» is the topic connected with the origins of the Russian statehood and the role Norsemen played in the process. Relevancy of the topic is obvious in the early 21st century too. Research made by L.S.Klein is considered to be an important contribution to history of the Ancient Rus studies.

The Energy Policy and Diplomacy of Azerbaijan Republic

The article is dedicated to the energy policy and diplomacy of Azerbaijan Republic. It deals with the main elements of the national oil and gas diplomacy of the country. Implementation of Heydar Aliyev’s energy strategy, also the guaranteed transportation of the country’s energy resources to world markets, by means of reaching laid the firm basis of Azerbaijan’s development

Behind Side Scenes of Journal Polemic around «Konarmia» by Babel'

The paper deals with the political background of S.M.Budenny's essay «The Babism of Babel». Based on archival documents it establishes the fact of major political campaign against A.K.Voronsky, the Chief Editor of «Krasnaya Nov» journal being prepared in the autumn 1924. That campaign was only a part of the wider campaign aimed against L.D.Trotsky, the member of Political Bureau of Central Committee of Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). K.Ye.Voroshilov, the closest Stalin’s supporter in his struggle for power, initiated Budenny’s essay as well as the number of yet unpublished works against Babel’s «Red Cavalry». S.N.Orlovsky, a military prosecutor and A.I.Tarasov-Rodionov, a writer were Voroshilov’s assistants and actual authors of the article.

Imitation as a Tool of Phasing-out. Or Phasing-out by Virtue of Imitation. Both ways Produce the Sane Net Result

The author deals with what he considers one of the main causes of the present day decline of Russia — substitution of imitation of activity for activity. Nowadays this practice is common but goes practically unnoticed because it is used by all strata of the Russian society and is pretty convenient for everybody. However the further advancement of this practice is utterly detrimental not only for the Russian state but for Russian society itself and eventually may ruin it.

The American Fairy Tale (about Oliver Yourgen's Book)

The article is a review of «Dreams of Uncle El», the book by American writer Oliver Yurgen. The American fairy detective story provides not only a pretext for critical review but causes serious thought about the place fiction book in the contemporary cultural context. First of all, the author wonders whether O. Yurgen’s book may have its own reader in Russia or not. The book is not just a story for adolescents. It is also a peculiar message addressed to the Russian book market and contemporary Russian culture. Will such book be required in present-day Russia? What will be its Russian readers? Is the humanistic literary tradition (one of contemporary representatives of the tradition is Oliver Yurgen, the American writer and thinker) still possible in Russia?

Problems of the Communist Movement in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century

After a brief survey of certain achievements the author examines the process of difficulties built-up and subsequent crisis which hit the Communist movement in the 2nd half of the 20th century. As the author demonstrates, the crisis wad caused by the external, objective factors that bore on the movement (abrupt change of the situation in the world and within countries, the diverse anti-Communism (as well as subjective reasons related to the major errors in the parties' activities and activities of the Communist movement as a whole. Among causes of the crisis one has to mention inadequate attention of the parties to changes of the situation, wavering between dogmatism and denial of principles, inability or unwillingness to overcome theoretical and political disagreements that arose among parties etc. The author offers a concise characterization of the Communist movement at the beginning of the 21st century and possible perspectives of the Left movements' development are outlined.

How did the Communists Struggle against Corruption in 1922 (Exemplifies Vyatka Guberniya)

The article highlights the work of the provincial (primarily the party) leadership, as well as relevant government departments and agencies to tackle corruption, has received a «second wind» during the transition to the NEP. Analyze the structure of the offenses had corrupt orientation and the factors that hampered the fight against this social evil.
The article deals with the problem of juvenile justice. Pro-Western human rights activists are trying to introduce in Russia for along time. Ideology of juvenile justice comes into acute conflict with Russian traditional values and approaches to protection of families and children. Recently advocates of juvenile justice try to conceal their intentions under slogans of children’s rights protection from cruel treatment. The authors vividly demonstrate what is hidden behind this signage and make offer to the public to rally for protection of downtrodden children’s rights. Such protection means not a propaganda of permissiveness and license but, on the contrary, protection of a child’s right to life and upbringing in his/her own family, protection of psychic, mental health of children and parents who will be very strongly injured by forced separation if a child is taken away from a family.
The upsurge of political activism that occurred in December of 2011 after the election to the Russian State Duma and continued in the subsequent months up to June of 2012 is an enigmatic phenomenon in many respects. Causes of discontent as aired by the opposition leaders had been present for a very long time prior to the upsurge and roused no massive dissatisfaction. There is every reason to suspect that the genuine if hidden cause of mass demonstrations, meetings and riots is the authorities' desire to defuse a frightening potential of mass discontent well in advance of decisive imminent confrontation related with consequence of Russia’s joining WTO. In fact, the authorities tried to burnout the mass discontent potential and found support of opposition in this undertaking.

Female Auto Documental Materials as the Mirror of Identity

The author examines samples of female auto documental materials (diaries, letters, recollections, autobiographies) written in the 18th and 19th centuries by women of different estates and social standings, family statuses and educational backgrounds. These narratives carried an enormous social and psychological load because they were not just a form of extreme self-expression and revelation of female inner world. They were, in fact, thinking twins of women who wrote them, twins that were intended to accomplish self-representation of those women’s gender (female) identity.

About the History of the Scientific Schools: the Founder of the Concept of the Medical Nutrition M.I.Pevzner and his School

The M. Pevsner's school of nutritionists and gastroenterologists is reviewed as a classic model of scientific clinical school of 20-th century. For the first time reliable scientific biographie of one of the pioneers of the USSR gastroenterology professor M.I.Pevsner is presented, and his disciples are named. The influence of the socio-political factors on the fate of the scientists and related scientific areas is shown.

«…This Glorious Year Has Passed»: On the Patriotic War of 1812 Jubilee

The 200th anniversary of Russia’s victory in the Patriotic War of 1912 was celebrated at the state level. Preparations and conducting of the jubilee included various events. Numerous exhibitions, conferences, scientific proceedings devoted to the glorious date were held in the course of several years. With no pretension to analytical nature of her remarks the author characterizes the content and geographical scope of celebrations on the basis of published special literature, media materials and information distributed in the Web.
The article reflects the outbreak of indignation provoked by the Public Health department’s irresponsible decision to disestablish the oldest Moscow psychoneurological dispensary № 21 which is famous with its humanistic traditions and high level of its staff qualification. The decision in question was made without consent of numerous patients and well-knit medical staff whose activities are aimed at meeting needs of persons with psychic deviations. Arbitrariness of the Public Health department officials violates the basic principles of dispensary medical care, i.e. its decentralization and accessibility for population. The Public Health department’s decision was made secretly and in contempt of patient interests. According to the author, the decision is determined by a desire to use the plot occupied with the dispensary in the downtown in commercial purposes.

Two Germanies. Impressions gained during a visit to Berlin in May

The author shares with impressions he gained during his recent visit to the capital of Germany (the visit coincided with the 70-th jubilee of the Great Victory. The opinion of the expert on German affairs, author of numerous studies in the 20th century German history, a person who from «within» observed how the Federal Republic of Germany really expanded at the expense of the German Democratic Republic is of interest because a picture that is carefully produced by media and politicians who care of anything but firm and safe peace in Europe does not disturb the author’s judgment. For a lot in the contemporary world still depends on what Germans think and do. The author comes to the conclusions providing a hope that peacefulness and readiness to constructive cooperation (both traits can be regarded as the GDR’s political testament) will prevail in the final resort.
The authors consider the most recent experience that is acquired due to study of peculiarities of a new social-psychological and creative space formation in the Soviet literature and public life of the 1920s exemplified by materials of the Soviet men of letters' private archives and their legal cases and court investigations. The authors analyze mechanisms of creative personalities' adaptation to conditions and requirements of the emerging totalitarian culture.

The New Research of the Phenomenon of Stalinism and the Jewish question in the USSR

The author, renowned specialist in history of interethnic relations in Russia and the USSR, presents the new version of book «Secret policy of Stalin. Authority and anti-Semitism» written by G.V.Kostyrchenko and published in 2015 by International relations publisher’s house. Author investigated in a rather detailed way the book’s theses that are principally new in methodological, factual and analytical respects. Author gives an overall positive appraisal of the book and thinks that the book is an important scientific contribution to the Russian historiography.

Жизнь в мавзолеях мифов

Авторский текст состоит из двух частей, находящихся в определенном единстве как фрагменты мифологического характера и объекты пристального внимания многих читающих и пишущих людей. Их интерес понятен, ведь в мировой истории сюжеты и суждения, возникшие из былей и небылиц вокруг Вавилонской башни и библейского Ноева ковчега, отразились с притягательной разнообразностью. Поскольку число интерпретаций, связанных с подобными памятниками и реалиями культуры, растет, автор поставил своей задачей напомнить о пользе достигнутых исследовательских результатов и о специалистах, которые внесли свою лепту в прояснение событий прошлого, в практику археологии, расшифровки древних письмен.

Intellectuals and the Great Russian Revolution. Reflections on the New Book

The article analyzes a new monograph of Professor Y.V.Aksyutin and associate Professor N.Ye.Gerdt, which is devoted to the attitude of intellectuals to the great Russian revolution. The study is based on sources of personal origin (letters, diaries, memoirs) and periodicals. Reviews of the events are arranged in chronological order, which allowed to show how the attitude of the intelligentsia to what is happening: the overthrow of the monarchy, the Provisional government, the situation on the front, the land question, the October revolution, etc. Described in Detail the daily life of the intelligentsia. The authors concluded that the intelligentsia was the first to resist the Bolsheviks.
keywords: the Great Russian revolution; the intelligentsia; diaries; letters; the Provisional government; the land question; the First world war.

Petersburg Doctors Through the Eyes of Patients During a Cholera Epidemic in 1831

In 1831, the first cholera epidemic broke out in St. Petersburg, which was remembered by Cholera rebellion on Sennaya Square from June 22–23. The closest to the townspeople at this time were doctors, who acted as representatives of the authorities. After the townspeople staged a hunt for doctors accused of killing patients, measures were taken to form a positive image of a doctor. To overcome the negative image was used a wide range of measures: from publications in newspapers to sermons in churches. This was an important step at this stage in the formation of the Russian medical corporation.
keywords: doctors; corporation; community; image; cholera; St. Petersburg; 1831.
The brief essay is about Russia’s opportunities for development in modern world and about some results of post-Soviet state-building in Russia. According to author, Russia managed to avoid negative consequences of the USSR collapse: it preserved the unity, strengthened its position on international scene, and maintained its defense capability. The publicist draws attention to the economic policy of the Russian Federation and to its development prospects in this field in the foreseeable future. In the essay, the external and internal components of Russian politics are investigated from the point of view of interaction and counteraction of different forces and groups within the country.
keywords: post-Soviet space; situation in the international sphere; preservation of defense capability; preservation of the unity; development prospects.