Typology of Unity: the Literary Community of the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries
This article is about literary communities and groups of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The authors analyze the conditions of their existence in pre-revolutionary Russia and the USSR, relations with the authorities, peculiarities of the organization of Soviet literary life. It is concluded that the literary struggle of the 1920s – early 1930s was due to the desire of writers to find and offer their own "Unique Trade Offer", to achieve hegemony in literature, to get the right to decide how to express the Bolshevik’s ideology.
Symbolists, Cubo-futurists, Comfuts, Imaginists, Acmeists, RAPP, Pereval.
«Вся моя сознательная жизнь принадлежала Партии и Родине…»: письмо журналиста А.Н.Гарри И.В.Сталину
В статье анализируется письмо, написанное осужденным в 1939 г. на 8 лет лагерей журналистом А.Н.Гарри И.В.Сталину. В письме Гарри описывает причину своего осуждения, свои заслуги перед СССР, просит у Сталина предоставить ему возможность вернуться к литературной деятельности. В приложенной к письму автобиографии он описывает основные моменты своей биографии.
«Ведь он у нас в списке...»: к истории общественных настроений 1937 года
Статья посвящена описанию общественных настроений 1937 года – времени «Большого террора» в СССР. Публикуются, комментируются и анализируются показания журналиста-известинца А.Н.Гарри, данные им на следствии 1937 г. Описывается биография Гарри, круг его общения, причины, по которым он трижды попадал в тюрьму.
The «Satirists' Case» and «Krokodil» Magazine: from the History of the Soviet Journalism of the 1930s
The authors describe the popular feelings of the 1930s in connection with the history of «Krokodil» magazine reformation. The criminal case filed against three Soviet satirists (N.R.Erdman, V.Z.Mass and Emil Krotki who were accused of writing and disseminating «anti-Soviet» fables and subsequently sentenced) is analyzed. The authors also examine criminal cases brought against M.D.Volpin, M.A.Gloushkov, A.S.Bukhov and Ya.M.Bel'ski.
«We, „The Crocodile“ …»: the Power and the Satirical Press in the 1930s
The author considers the Soviet satirical press of the 1930s on the example of «The Crocodile» magazine. The historical and political context of the magazine’s existence is discussed in connection with tasks that were set for the Soviet satire of that period. The author analyzes «The Crocodile» editorial board’s policy, the circle of the magazine’s writers, main themes of publications. A particular attention is paid to the issue of denunciations on the magazine’s staff members made to the State Political Directorate. Reasons of «The Crocodile» reform of 1934 are considered in detail. The article is predominantly based on archive materials including documents from the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation Central Archive.
The Dymovka Affair: an Episode of the Soviet Regional Press History
The authors relate details of so called Dymovka affair, a large-scale press campaign connected with slaughter of G.I.Malinovsky, the agrarian correspondent of the «Red Nikolaev» newspaper. The authors analyze press materials, art works and archive materials pertaining to the event as well as to the trial of «murders of the agrarian correspondents». The authors come to the conclusion that the real reason of the press campaign was the struggle for power between I.V.Stalin who was supported by F.E.Dzierzynsky and L.D.Trotsky. The article demonstrates how sinuosity of this struggle was reflected in press publications, first of all, in the «Red Nikolaev» newspaper.
A Contribution to the History of the Early 19th Century Russian Army: K.Th.Ryleev at the Military Service
The authors deal with the situation in the Russian army after the Patriotic War of 1812 and the foreign campaigns of 1813 and 1814. Relations in mass of army officers are examined on the example of K. Th. Ryleev, the poet and conspirator, service activities. The authors reconstruct the circle of the army officers' interests and their attitude to the military service and come to the conclusion that the post-war officers' service could not meet aspirations of young gentlemen to the full in the later years of Alexander I reign.
History of the Russian Mlitary Education in the Early 19th Century Revisited: К.Th.Ryleev’s School Years in the First Cadet Corps
The article deals with history of military education in the early 19th century Russia and, in the first place, with the history of the First cadet corps. The author focuses her attention on the period when K.Th.Ryleev, famous Russian poet attended the corps. The system of military and other disciplines learning that was introduced in the corps and morals that prevailed in the corps are studied. The mentioned features emerged, in many respects, due to personal traits of tutors who undoubtedly had an influence on their students. Besides that, the author investigates the corps' department for minors where Ryleev also spent several years and attempts to define the circle of cadet friends of the future revolutionary and analyze his first verses written in the cadet corps.
«Trustworthy Person»: Prince Sergei Troubetskoy as Conspirator and a Man of Service
The article deals with official performance of Prince Trubetskoy, a prominent figure in the secret societies of the 1820s. Analyzed is his trip to England in 1819, his service as aid-de-camp in the General Staff of the Russian army, as well as execution of military-police duties in his capacity of on-duty staff officer of the 4th Infantry Corps quartered in Kiev (1825). The conclusion is reached that his official activities were often associated with performance of special missions for the government. The experience gained in the service, Trubetskoy used to organize an anti-government plot, as well as to neutralize the enemies of this conspiracy.
K.F.Ryleev’s Family History in the Historical and Literary Context of the Late 18th – early 19th Century
The article deals with the family history of K.F.Ryleev, famous poet-Decembrist. The authors examine people who surrounded K.F.Ryleev in his childhood and adolescence, characterize the ambience within which he was born and emerged as a personality and within which his adult life ran to some extent. Connection of Ryleev’s history with his collection of letters, his creative, financial and journalistic activities is analyzed.
Decembrists and the People: Presentation of the Problem
This paper is a publication of documents on peasants' riots in Ukrainian village Germanovka in the mid-1820s. The documents reveal that in summer pf 1825 peasants were pacified by a troop team of the Chernigovski infantry regiment which a few months later took part in the Decembrist revolt. The publication is prefaced with the article analyzing Decembrists' attitude to the people at large and to the public disturbances in particular.
P.I.Pestel under Investigation
The following article is dedicated to revision of the main aspects of Decembrist’s secret societies history. Its author argues that usual to many scholars as well as readers ideas about secret societies are based on the conception created by the Southern society leader Pavel Pestel during interrogation. It had little resemblance to reality. This conception presented Decembrist movement as an endless ideological debate, complicated by bloody regicide projects. Pestel’s conception suited him well to hide the real preparations to the seizure of power, leaded by him. It also suited well the new emperor, permitting him to hide from Europe the army’s corruption and to justify hard sentences to the accused. The article points out, that the classical Decembrist studies had reached a deadlock, and needs complete rethinking.
The Abortive Revolution Revisited (S.P.Trubetskoi and the Chernigovsky Regiment’s Rebellion)
The article is devoted to one of the most acute in the current research of Decembrist movement issues, the issue of the Decembrists' ‘plan of actions' on the even of the rebellion of December 14, 1825. The authors pay the particular attention to the Northern society’s leaders, to S.P. Trubetskoi, the rebellion ‘dictator'. It is demonstrated that at the basis of S. P. Trubetskoi’s intentions lied the idea of joint action of the Northern and the Southern societies. His activities aimed at implementation of this intent are analyzed. The authors also analyze the reasons due to which this ‘plan of action' was left unrealized.