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RUSSIA XXI

< Issue No 2 from 2006 yr. >

Cartoons: a New Twist of the Islamic Topic and its Significance for the Contemprorary Politics

The article which is based on analysis of the «information games» around cartoons of Prophet Muhammad demonstrates that the nature of this game is closely connected with the «landmarks change» in the US policy. This «landmark change» was announced by C. Rice during her visit to Egypt and since then it was confirmed by her position during her tour around the Middle East countries. C. Rice has apparently contributed to the success of Muslim brothers in Egypt and to success of their subsidiary, Hamas in Palestine. The Muslim Brothers were established for promotion of triumph of «Universal Caliphate» and there are grounds to believe that the American and British intelligence too part in formation of the organization. The author demonstrates that Muslim Brothers are used against any regime of modernization tinge in the Muslim world. The triangle formed of Egypt, Palestine and Iran is an important part of the process initiated. The essence of this process is sequentially described in Al-Qaeda's working schedule entitled «Seven steps to Islamic caliphate» which indicates that the Christian world will have to be totally defeated. Transformation of «Euro Islam» into radical Islam should serve the plan’s execution and the provocation with cartoons is to be considered in this light and as a part of the program.

Postmodern Locomotive or the «Realm of Darkness»

«Dynamics of the hegemony crisis», a study written by Giovanni Arrighi, the professor of John Hopkins University has been a cause for the article presented to readers. Arrighi’s book is devoted to historical and conceptual problems connected with evolution of the world political and economic order. The people’s planet is undergoing not just a transformational but transitional situation when components of obviously different construction of the world emerge amidst diverse social transformers. However realities of the Modernity epoch are still present on the historical stage. The subject of the authors reflections presented in form of decrypted polemical marginalia on Arrighi’s book is the approach to recognition of mobile architecture of the global community which is to replace old forms of the «world order». The author also investigates subscriptions of the «design documents» of the forthcoming epoch, i.e. schemes and drawings of the contemporary or, rather, post-contemporary structures that are being constructed right before our eyes.

Trends in Development of the Islamic Movement in the South of Russia

Due to centrifugal processes of late 1980s and early 1990s the Islamic movement in the Northern Caucasus turned out to be fragmented. That fact found its reflection not just in a new institutionalization of the official Islam but also in emergence of absolutely new actors in the Moslem field which hitherto had been single and unified. The author means numerous «Islamic» political parties and movements that vigorously employed the Islamic rhetoric and symbols in their activities. By mid-1990s these structures achieved the peak of their influence. Then they dwindled and nowadays they do not exert any serious impact on political processes in the region. However in the meantime (and not without influence from without) the Salafi grouping emerged and became the principal opponents of the conventional and official Islam. Events that took place in Chechnya in 1994−1996 paved the way for accelerated internationalization of the Salafi movement in the region. In 1996−1999 Chechen Republic was turned into the drill ground of the international terrorism which allowed the extremist movement which used Islam as a disguise to develop there. An exceptionally powerful force and administrative pressure was exerted on adherents of Salafism and that pressure was, for all practical purposes, indiscriminate. At the same time «anti-Wahhabi» laws were passed in many North Caucasian regions of Russia. That resulted in disappearance of moderate radicals' communities and strengthening of religious and political extremists' positions. Defeat of separatists in Chechnya, diffusion of the Salafi movement over other North Caucasian republics transformed «the resistance» partially into «guerilla way of life», partially into mobile, loosely interconnected terrorist groups. The extremist Jihad has spread out all over the region.
The Russian officials permanently express their indignation caused by arrangement of monuments to SS-men in Latvia and Estonia and commemorations in honor of SS-men organized in these states. Rehabilitation of Nazism in the Baltic states and in Western Ukraine is really a disgraceful, ignominious phenomenon. However the paradox lies in the fact that the monument of SS-men, Gruppenführer Helmut von Pannvitz and his fellows in arms from punitive units of Wehrmacht and SS was constructed in the capital of the Russian Federation, near Sokol subway station already under Elstin and it was not demolished in the year of the Victory 60th anniversary in spite of Muscovites' protests. The organized and purposeful revision of conventional scientific (read moral) notions on the WWII has gone (and still goes) unabated under accompaniment of jubilee speeches. Books, movies and performances whose authors freely scoffed at the memory of anti-Nazi fighters have kept to appear. It should be emphasized that quite often such undertakings were funded from the State budget and enjoyed the complete and cordial support of officials. Recently Ilya Smirnov, a historian, has published a series of articles on creeping rehabilitation of Nazism. Today he comes round to the theme and takes into account contradictory experience of the Victory 60th anniversary. He demonstrates how the political propaganda is disseminated under false cloak of «creativity». This propaganda campaign drubs the idea that the forefathers of the younger generations of Russians were cruel and brutish murderers and Nazis were innocent victims of the Soviet «totalitarian» regime into conscience of people who are coming into age. The author draws a particular attention to underlying motives of the organizers of this propaganda campaign as well as to the deplorable fact that these people still control principal Russian media and may employ the air and press to advertise their production and defame their opponents.
The article is devoted to life and creative work of Afzaladdin Badil Ibrahim ibn Ali Khakani Shirvani, one of the greatest Persian lyric poets. Analysis of Khakani’s verses and circumstances of life that accompanied these verses' emergence allowed the author to introduce some important amendments into the poet’s biography. The author considers Khakani’s creative work against a broad historical background and investigates the poet’s multifaceted interests to his own country and the adjacent countries: Byzantine, Georgia, Iraq, Armenia, Rus. Khalani’s poetry is the embodiment of aesthetic, ethical, philosophical and historical culture. Khakani’s poetry reflected the variegated life of Transcaucasia and Middle East in the epoch of Turkomans' expansion to the West and did that with a greater authenticity than many chronicles and scientific treatises. It is not for nothing that historians in their studies so often refer to Khakani’s poetical testimonies. His poetry contains pre-admonition of Byzatine’s collapse which would have to occur nearly three centuries later. His poetry contains admonition of planetary disaster which would happen unless injustice of the social arrangement is done away. Khakani’s poetry is the poetry of pain caused by personal humiliation and humiliation of the nation. It is the poetry of persistence, tenacity and courage. At the end of the article the author offers analysis of Khakani’s poetics. The author demonstrates influence of Khakani’s creative work on many his contemporaries and later poets including Hafiz, another man of genius in the Persian poetry.

V.S.Voitinski to Harvey and his Offsprings. Letters, 1933–1939: on the Time, Events and Politicians

Vladimir Savelievich Voitinski’s letters to Petr Abramovich Harvey are surprising examples of warmth toward the addressee, comprehensiveness of the most important world events coverage and depth of their analysis, of impartial characterization of known political figures (Russian as well as American ones), exactitude of everyday sketches, of lambent humor and of doubtless literary gift of their author. The selection includes just a small part of collection. Letters written by Harvey, his wife Sophia Samoilovna and their children, daughter Sylvia and son Yuri in response are unavailable. However the selection is quite self-sufficient. All consistent topics (economic, political, personal ones) are complete and provide no only panorama of the most important world events of that watershed period in the 20th century which was exceptionally saturated with all kinds of disasters but also assessment of these events by one of the most wise and bright Russian politicians and scientists who unfortunately is poorly known in his motherland (See publication «Economic opinions of V.S.Voitinski» in our magazine No. 6, 2005.).

On the Role of Science in the Contemporary Society

From the Renaissance on science pushed religion to the background and occupied the leading position in the humankind’s worldview. From the 18th century to the mid-19th century scientific discoveries followed each other in succession while practice followed in the science’s track taking these discoveries up and realizing them in public production. However thereafter science began to switch over technological improvement of practice. Notion of ‘scientific and technological revolution' was replaced with notion of ‘technological revolution' and science is getting to be more and more oriented to practice. In the past development of science provided the humankind with the industrial revolution. That determined transition of humankind to the post-industrial epoch which is characterized with instability and dynamism of political, economic, social, technological and other conditions. Practice has to re-adjust itself to permanently changing conditions. Therefore the innovative practice has become the principal characteristic of the contemporary period. If earlier, under a relatively long-term stability of way of life the public practice could wait for until science developed new recommendations and designers and industrial engineers developed and tested respective designs and technologies and only then these innovations would be introduced into practice nowadays such waiting has become senseless. Therefore practice has headed for another direction: practical workers have begun to create innovative models of social, economic, technological etc. systems. That has brought about authorial models of manufacturing, companies, technologies, methods etc. But to perform in such capacity practical workers need the scientific training, scientific education and need them more and more. Change of science’s role in the contemporary society and closing-in movement of science and practice create and will bring about significant impact on all aspects of life: politics, economics, social sphere, education, culture and so on.