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scientific journal
RUSSIA XXI

< Issue No 3 from 2019 yr.

The Dynamics of Ideological and Political Preferences for 25 Years. Three Stages of Transformation of Social Consciousness (the end)

The article, based on the results of research of is RAS and VTSIOM, shows the evolution of ideological and political preferences of Russians over the past quarter century. The transition from the Soviet type of mass consciousness to the Western one to the moderate-state one to the "zero" is traced. The author reveals the prospects of further dynamics on the basis of the vector of mass public demand.
keywords: values; mass consciousness; public inquiry; conservatism; liberalism; Westernism; changes; social justice.

The Proletarian University: Ideas and Practice

The article deals with the history of origin and attempts to implement the idea of A.A.Bogdanov about the Proletarian University as one of the means of mastering the proletarian culture by working class. The task of Proletarian University is not to provide students with fragments of knowledge, but to give them a general idea about the system of modern scientific knowledge, to show the interrelation of different branches of science, to teach basic methods of cognition. The idea of the Proletarian University was first formulated by A.A.Bogdanov in 1911, and the first attempt to implement it and at the same time its first prototype was the party schools for workers in Capri and Bologna.
keywords: proletarian culture, party school for workers, Alexander Bogdanov, Proletarian university

Christians Rakovsky in the Revolutionary Events in Ukraine (1918–1923): the Search for Modern Scientific Accents (the end)

Proposed publication covers activities of the Soviet Ukraine Government Chairman H.G.Rakovsky at final stage of Civil War and in the first two and a half years of peaceful socialist construction, assesses his position and role in the unification movement for USSR creation.
keywords: Ukraine; Civil War; USSR; Council of People's Commissars; KP (b) U; national question; Ukrainian communism; USSR; autonomy; confederalism; federation.

State and Power: Past and Perspectives in the Public Thought of Russian Emigré

The article is devoted to the political and legal thought of Russian émigré in 1920–1930. In the focus of the article there are the concepts of state, democracy, empire that were reflected by the followers of the different political ideologies. They interpreted the experience of Russian empire, Russian revolution trying to predict the future of political systems in Europe. It helped them to make radical conclusions that were too far from the former intellectual tradition.
keywords: Russian émigré, state, law, democracy, empire, revolution.

Power Against Revolution: Projects Power Overcoming the 1905 Revolutionary Crisis in Russia

The article analyzes the projects of power suppression of the revolutionary movement in Russia, elaborated by representatives of the top bureaucracy in 1905. Particular attention is paid to the transformation of the attitude of officials to repression as a means of overcoming the revolutionary crisis, as well as the main factors of this transformation. On the grounds of the research, it was concluded that the use of force to combat the revolution became the main instrument of authority only in November 1905, while previously the repressive policy was predominantly declarative.
keywords: The First Russian Revolution; 1905; top bureaucracy; repression; S.Y.Witte; P.N.Durnovo.

Typology of Unity: the Literary Community of the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

This article is about literary communities and groups of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The authors analyze the conditions of their existence in pre-revolutionary Russia and the USSR, relations with the authorities, peculiarities of the organization of Soviet literary life. It is concluded that the literary struggle of the 1920s – early 1930s was due to the desire of writers to find and offer their own "Unique Trade Offer", to achieve hegemony in literature, to get the right to decide how to express the Bolshevik’s ideology.
keywords: Symbolists, Cubo-futurists, Comfuts, Imaginists, Acmeists, RAPP, Pereval.

«I’m Pretty Sure That the Russian People Want Peace and Security No Less Than We, and Maybe Even More Passionately»

This article is the release of Vernadsky’s speech on the radio at the USA in 1946. The main purpose of this speech is to dispel the myth about the aggressive intentions of the USSR to establish the Communist regime around the world by enslaving Western Europe democracy. There already was strong ideological battle at the beginning of the Cold War period. All of the USSR actions were under the close eye of the American mass media, and were commonly followed by negative reports. G.V.Vernadsky thoroughly analyses and exposes many cases of so well known now ‘fake news’. He also discusses the problem of the implementation of the double standards policy by comparing different points of view on important issues of the USSR, the USA and the Great Britain.
keywords: Russian abroad, USSR image, the history of emigration.
The brief essay is about Russia’s opportunities for development in modern world and about some results of post-Soviet state-building in Russia. According to author, Russia managed to avoid negative consequences of the USSR collapse: it preserved the unity, strengthened its position on international scene, and maintained its defense capability. The publicist draws attention to the economic policy of the Russian Federation and to its development prospects in this field in the foreseeable future. In the essay, the external and internal components of Russian politics are investigated from the point of view of interaction and counteraction of different forces and groups within the country.
keywords: post-Soviet space; situation in the international sphere; preservation of defense capability; preservation of the unity; development prospects.