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RUSSIA XXI

< Issue No 4 from 2015 yr. >

The author focuses her attention on the problem of unrecognized or self-proclaimed states. Nowadays the problem became one of the most obvious manifestations of the international law chaotization. The process began in the late 20th century. Nevertheless up to 2008 normative value of such documents as the UN Charter and the Final act of the Conference on security and cooperation in Europe (the Helsinki Act) have been never challenged. The more so the fundamental principles laid in the basis of the international legal order that was established after the World War II. The situation changed drastically after 2008. The author pays a particular attention to events happened in 2008 since it were precisely these events that, in a great extent, created the context ignoring which it is impossible neither to grasp specifics of the Donbass phenomenon (despite the wide spread opinion that has little in common with the first post-Soviet unrecognized republics), nor duly appreciate tenacity demonstrated by the still unrecognized Trans-Dniester Moldavian Republic and Nagorno-Karabkh Republic in their fighting for the territory of right. As the author shows in the concluding part of the article, the significance of this tenacity goes far beyond confines of these republics.

Calculations and Miscalculations. How Geo-Strategy Became a Hostage of Geopolitics (the end)

The World War II is replete with examples when inadequately stated, permeated with class ideology geopolitics brought to bear negative influence on achievement of its specific goals by means of military strategy. The second part of the article exposes contradictions between policies and strategies of the Western Allies in the anti-Fascist coalition during the Pacific war. The most dramatic manifestation of these contradictions came at the final stage of the WWII when the Western Allies proved to be unable to complete defeat of Japan in short terms and without unacceptable losses. All these conditions could be fulfilled only due to the USSR entry into war. Despite willingness to limit growth of authority and influence of the USSR on the post-war world balance of forces the Western Allies had to ask the USSR to join the war on the Far East due to the immense experience of land operations the USSR acquired in Europe.

«…He Was a Great Lover of Luxury and Splendor»: Saint-Petersburg Tailor of the 18th Century

The history of Imperial Russia began not only with new army and navy, but also with the new clothes. Growth to the new capital of the Russian Empire, St. Petersburg, on the one hand, absorbed the Moscow experience of cooperation with foreign experts from the German Slobode of the 17th century, on the other hand, was an experimental space in which to generate new knowledge and experience sharing to a new level. The tailors of Petersburg were supposed to supply the population of a large city with European clothes: nobility, burghers, craftworker and merchants, the Royal court, the army and navy. The presence of many foreign tailors in St. Petersburg strongly influenced the development of tailor’s and resulted in a major fashion center in Russia in the 18th century.
Technocratic mentality started to form gradually since the second part of the 19th century. The most famous European physicians stated that the crisis of humane medicine arrived after the WWI and the increasing dehumanization of medical activity came after the WWII. Nowadays the process seems to acquire irreversible character. A doctor and a patient have proved to be on different sides of the barricade built of technical achievements and hardened by impregnable technocratic mentality.

«Substitute» Elements in Religious Practices (Based on Recollections of GULAG Prisoners in the 1920-s — the 1940s)

The article deals with the problem of religious practices adaptation to conditions of the Soviet imprisonment and prison camp detention in the 1920s — the 1940s. Christian religious practices are taken as example. Actions, items, spaces, texts of religious life mutated under impact of interdictory conditions: religious procedures and rites were simplified and reduced down to substitution of action with narrative about action; items of religious attributes were made of make-shift materials and divided into parts; each part began to symbolize the whole or these parts were excluded altogether; lack of special spaces for religious rites and actions led to their conduct virtually in any point of space accessible to prisoners.

Energy Policy of Russia in the South Caucasus: Pipeline Wars

The geopolitical aspects of a number of energy projects in South Caucasus are presented. The major pipeline projects in the region such as Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum, Iran-Armenia and others are estimated. The basic problems of confrontation and cooperation among Russia, USА, EU, Turkey and Iran for the dominance in the energy market of the South Caucasus are studied. Russia’s pipeline strategy in the region is analyzed; its strengths and weaknesses are identified. The significance of Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the development of regional pipeline maps is revealed. The degree of influence of regional instability and a number of territorial conflicts on the pipeline system of South Caucasus is defined.

«A Magazine for Military Educational Institutions Students Reading»: Glimpses of Journalism for Children

The article deals with a specialized magazine for children. The magazine was intended for students of military educational institutions of the Russian Empire. The purpose of the magazine determined its contents, circle of authors and general ideological trend of the magazine.

Luxury. Crisis. State. The State Regulation of the Russian Luxury Market during the Crisis of 1916–1917

The article considers the regulatory activities of the Russian government in the luxury market during the World War I and February Revolution. This research is focused on the price formation and speculations in the Russian consumer market. The article contains analysis of the Russian tax system under the extreme conditions of the war time. The author has revealed new historical sources. This research contains multidisciplinary approach (social, historical and economical science). The further research of the respective topics may lead to significant scientific achievements.

A Dangerous Profession (to be continued)

During September and October 1974 the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations under the chairmanship of Senator J.W.Fulbright organised the open «Hearings» on «Détente» and the awarding the Soviet Union «The Most Favoured Nation» status in trade and the Jackson amendment attached to it. This Amendment linked the MFN status to free emigration of Soviet Jews to Israel. At the same time the new Trade agreement was also linked to the ratification of Agreements on the mutual reduction of strategic weapons (SALT-1) signed by Brezhnev and Nixon in 1972. Zhores Medvedev was invited to participate and in his Statement before the Committee on October 8th insisted that the Senate approval of «Jackson amendment» which was unacceptable to Soviet leadership might ruin not only the Trade agreement, but also the whole détente, SALT-1 and create new restrictions for emigration from the Soviet Union.