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scientific journal
RUSSIA XXI

< Issue No 5 from 2005 yr. >

Bombing in London: What are They? How will They Influence Us and the World?

The author analyzes information pertaining to explosions in London. Information published in media allows tracing a connection between terrorist attacks and secret services and between terrorist attacks in London and similar events in Madrid. The author expounds an opinion that terrorists actually fir into scenarios elaborated by secret services. Leaders of the global Jihad are confident that the only way through which they can influence the European governments is the influence upon the European nations, that is by «exporting the Iraqi war» to Europe. The author considers the general framework of relations between Islamism and the West in the past, the present and the future. If in the past Islamism was an ally of the West in confrontation with the USSR, nowadays it is in conflict with the West while in the future Islam will be an US ally against China. The first jolts of this future already destabilize Central Asia. It takes power to pass from one framework to another for such passage entails a war of interests and, first of all, war of world order projects. However Modern is collapsing now and post-modern is in offense seizing position once occupied by Modern. It is not so easy for the West to elbow its way out from under the debris. A new idea is necessary for that effort, a new great meaning which the West is afraid to seek.
The author argues that the destruction of the USSR was not an unavoidable outcome. In 1980's the Soviet political, social and economic system confronted general crisis very similar to the one that shook the West in early and late 1970's. In both cases the crucial developments of the time reflected a certain stage in the evolution of either system. It was not a lethal diagnosis meted out by destiny. Rather it was a big challenge to be answered by politicians and society. The Soviet Union could have survived had «all the king’s men» been guided by the sense of reality and responsibility with some admixture of good fortune.

Challenges and Opportunities of Russian-Byelorussian Union State Building

The strengthening of cooperation with Belorussia is one of the most important and at the same time difficult foreign policy directions of the Russian Federation. No domestic or international affairs, however acute or dramatic, could remove from the foreground or overshadow the issue of forming the Union State. The presented article studies the possible ways of proceeding with the integration processes, shapes and the legal framework of the unification. The Belorussian vector of the Russian policy is dependent on the necessity of a parallel solution of two delicate issues — the drawing up of mutually acceptable economic formula of bilateral ties of an integrational type and the assistance recipe for speeding-up cautious, but urgent reforms, the lack of which increases the risks in a closer cooperation with Minsk. One could be skeptical about the idea of a Russian-Belorussian Union State (and many experts indeed are), but it seems that the problem of the delegation of national administrative authorities to the supranational structures would potentially affect all states involved and it’s study is of current importance.

Real Mechanisms of Russian Economic Policy

Economic policy of a state have a bearing on many aspects of this state’s being: on its defense capacity, standards of living and longevity of its citizens, dynamics and stability of the country’s development. The hottest debates that took place during the period of Russian reforms are related precisely to definition of economic measures, decisions and actions' content. What is economic policy? How does it emerge and how is it shaped? What results does it bring about? The article is a study of connection between ideology as a political category and economic policy as a type of state government activity in contemporary Russia. The author demonstrates a series of negative consequences generated by in result of ideology substitution for managerial activity. Concept of «ideological corruption» is introduced. This concept helps to explain causes of the Russian economic policy’s inadequacy and irrationality. Some suggestions are offered. If implemented they will enable to mute, at least partially, effects of the identified negative mechanisms.

On Multivariance of International Economic Comparisons (the end)

In the second part of his article the author analyzes not just relationship of development levels of Russia, the US and other countries of West and East but also compares the absolute economic potentials of these countries (i.e., economic dimensions, economic power etc.) and other basic characteristics: area of their territories and populations. In result it becomes apparent that by beginning of the 21st century geo-economic position of Russia deteriorated considerably in comparison of what it used to be in the beginning of the 20th century. In 1913 GDP of Russian empire amounted to no less than 40−45% of the US economic potential and was, largely, in line with the similar indices of Great Britain and Germany; Russia’s economic power was nearly threefold greater than that of Japan. By 2003−2004 relationship of economic forces among these countries changed drastically: now the total GDP of Russia does not exceed 12−14% of the US GDP and is roughly equal to GDP of France and Italy in the best case. At the same time Russia’s GDP is one and a half time lesser than that of Germany and two and a half times lesser that that of Japan. It is expedient to take into account realities of the contemporary world and position Russia occupies within this world in setting of Russia’s domestic and foreign policies designed for the medium-term future. The hour has struck when it is necessary to abandon former messianic aspirations and to ensure favorable external conditions for accelerated economic development of the country.

«Rus» and «Russian Land» Concepts in the Mentality of Ancient Russian Scribes of the 11th–15th Century

The author presents a new interpretation of «rus/Rus» and «Russian land» concepts origin and traces their genesis back to the specific mentality of ancient Russian scribes of the 11th-15th century. The author offers a new perusal of the phrase: «отъ варяг бо прозвашася русью» (…«took their name «rus» from varangians»). The conventional interpretation of this phrase from the «Povest' vremennykh let» («Chronograph») original manuscript corpus is that the very name «rus» was derived from a name of some varangian tribe which bequeathed its name to another ethnic group. The author insists that the phrase should be read as follows: «varangians called them „rus“». According to mentality and world view of ancient Russian scribes the name «rus» was derived under influence of Byzantine chronicles from name of the elected Biblical tribe Pώz. Upon acceptance of Christianity in Rus a new concept «Russian land» appeared. That concept described a territory where the Orthodox faith dominated. As Constantinople fell in 1453 and Moscow Rus emancipated itself from the Mongol-Tatar yoke in 1480 notions «Russian» and «believer in Orthodox faith» became synonymic while Moscow Rus as the only independent Orthodox state was perceived as the guardian of the Orthodox faith until the doomsday which was expected to come in year 7000 (1492).

«I Wish My Eyes Would Not See All That!» On a Scientist’s Strange Confession and on Certain Problems of Scientific Schools’ Emergence

In history of Russia, the imperial as well as the Soviet, the Military medical academy (MMA), together with Moscow University, has always been the leading center of medical science and education. In 1920s its faculty was decorated with names of prominent representatives of medical and biological science: physiologist I.P.Pavlov, pharmacologist N.P.Kravkov, anatomist V.N.Tonkov, clinicians including surgeon S.P.Fedorov, therapists N.Ya.Chistov and M.V.Yankovski etc. Activity of these remarkable people set the exceptionally high level of the Academy’s scientific output. Such was the historical medical canon. As any canon it is not devoid of certain mythologizing and has reverse side. Correspondence between I.P.Pavlov and N.P.Kravkov which is being published by V.I.Borodulin, the historian of medical science, is an eloquent testimony of the real moral and work climate which prevailed in that period in MMA (and, obviously, not only in this institution). V.I.Borodulin also examines the role which has the civil position of a scientific school founder and some other issues of scientific schools formations.