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RUSSIA XXI

The Making of the Soviet Industrial System

The author examines logic and mechanisms employed in the course of the Soviet industrial system's two modernizations which were undertaken in 1930s and in 1950-1960s. The first modernization represented the economic component of a peculiar supernational social macro-project which integrated values of the Soviet society and was a response to the crisis of the Western civilization model. The second modernization provided for adaptation of the Soviet industrial system to new conditions of the Soviet society development which emerged in the post- WWII period. The examination is carried from interdisciplinary positions. The conventional economic analysis is strengthened with examination of social and cultural dimensions of the Soviet modernization and of the structure of the Soviet world economy etc. The model of the Soviet industrial system which resulted from the two modernizations up to 1970s provided for dynamic economic growth within which the standards of living visibly improved, large scale defensive programs were initiated and developed and manufacturing was being switched to new generations of technologies. The same model predetermined the limits of evolutionary self-development of the Soviet industrial system as regards aims and targets of the self-development and the systemic resources employed.

The Making of the Soviet Industrial System (the end)

The subjects of the article’s concluding part are the modernization of the Soviet industry over the 50s and 60s and the subsequent events which brought about its structural crisis. It is noted that this modernization marked one of the most successful periods of the Soviet economy development. Peculiarities of the Soviet world-economy and the peculiar forms of maintenance of its structural and technological balance are demonstrated. According to the author, the reason for the Soviet industrial system’s structural crisis is the conflict between attempts to maintain high rates of the Soviet world-economy's structural core development and maintenance of the structural and technological frameworks for the economic growth. The author emphasizes that this conflict emerged due to competition with the West which went along in the military as well as in the consumption spheres.

The Museum and the Historical Conscience

The author deals with issues related to the current situation and prospects of historical museums’ development in the Russian society as a phenomenon of social, political and cultural life. According to the author, a museum which reproduces models of the past with the help of genuine remnants of the tradition and culture serves not just preservation of the heritage but helps to a critical analysis of the social norms and values and to their authentic reproduction. This fact explains a museum’s bent for rational scientific methods of interpretation of the heritage. That is why a museum is an important vehicle to maintain the historical conscience. The collapse of the Communist ideology brought about disintegration of the Greater Russian national state tradition which crumbled into multitude of particular local archaic traditions that once had been constituent parts of the Greater tradition. The same trend caused disintegration of integral exhibition into array of different ones. The author contends that cognitive assumptions implied in a museum allow to perceive the historical process as a whole.

The Power of the Science and the Science of the Power in Russia at the Beginning of the 20th century

Given article is devoted to the consideration of one from principal problems in the history of the Russian science. This problem is relations between the science and autocracy in the beginning XX century. The author draw a conclusion, that in this time as the scientific association was a part of the tsarist bureaucracy, such the tsarist bureaucracy, through the bureaucratic elite, was a part of the scientific association. The social ground of this situation is the dissolution of the bureaucratic elite in the Russian intelligentsia, the institutional ground — the fact, nearly all scientists was the officials. Within the bureaucratic elite the representative of the humane sciences had a majority as compared with the representative of the technical sciences. Therefore, in point of view of the author, the autocracy of the beginning XX century was a form of the political supremacy of the humane scientific subculture. The author thinks that a conflict between the science and autocracy had inside-system character.

The Power of Science and the Science of Power in Russia at the Beginning of the 20th (the end)

Given article is devoted to the consideration of one from principal problems in the history of the Russian science. This problem is relations between the science and autocracy in the beginning XX century. The author draw a conclusion, that in this time as the scientific association was a part of the tsarist bureaucracy, such the tsarist bureaucracy, through the bureaucratic elite, was a part of the scientific association. The social ground of this situation is the dissolution of the bureaucratic elite in the Russian intelligentsia, the institutional ground — the fact, nearly all scientists was the officials. Within the bureaucratic elite the representative of the humane sciences had a majority as compared with the representative of the technical sciences. Therefore, in point of view of the author, the autocracy of the beginning XX century was a form of the political supremacy of the humane scientific subculture. The author thinks that a conflict between the science and autocracy had inside-system character.
The article which is based primarily on materials that are brought in scientific turnover for the first time is devoted deals with one phase of Saint-Petersburg (nowadays Russian) Academy of sciences which still remains practically unstudied. At the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century an attempt of a major scale reform of this oldest scientific establishment of the country was undertaken. K.K.Romanov, the president of the Academy, initiated the reform in 1890. The essence of the reform consisted in replacement of the Academy’s obsolete charter of 1836 with a new legal act which could invigorate activities of the 'primary scientific estate'. It was planned to represent new disciplines in the Academy, increase number of «chairs» and scales of the budget financing, make the election process more democratic etc. The document was being elaborated for more than 12 years and only in 1912 the single result was achieved: the Academy got a new budget but it was obtained only at the expense of scholars' refusal to proceed with a radical reorganization of the Academy.
The author presupposes that a woman is in the center of the «material space» though sometimes she deviates from this position. Her immanent sovereign senses and power as well as responsibility, linked to it, are investigated in the article. In the first part of the article the author interprets the parable about Adam and Eve as a reflection of the fact that Adam placed Eve higher then God and His will. It is emphasized that a woman plays the key-role in religions, and that women cult communities have the initial and closed status. A woman has the leading role in keeping fire, domestication animals and plants, staying away from men’s feasts and regulating the conjugal relations. She realizes humanitarian function that is a real «nerve of a culture». A lot of questions are analyzed: the polygamy as a men’s effort to escape from women’s reign, inferior springs of feminism, the difference between women’s problems in developed and developing countries. The author defines the family as a unit where the man’s mission is to serve woman and woman’s mission is to care about her man and support him.
In the second part of the article the author affirms that a woman «makes» a man and then takes the responsibility for him in the society. A child is her exclusive field of creation. It is necessary to settle back in people minds the idea that children are not the burden but happiness and blessing itself, that bringing them up is a very important work. A woman cannot abandon her duties for a long time because the comfort of a man and children depend on her. If this comfort gets misbalanced a family and the activity of men and children come to the deep crisis. The «masculinisation» of women strengthens the processes that let the world upside down, provoke the transference of the sexual poles and finally lead mankind to death. The author reckons that the target of any revolution is to break a woman. The suffragettes’ leaders, pursuing interests of their families, achieved the enslaving of other women with the help of the labor market. The happenings of 1991 in Russia brought back in our life the basic female values. It is important for a woman now to realize anew her responsibility and to use the modern opportunities of her creative activity.

Moscow Self-organizations and The Public at The Beginning of The XX-th Century

The article deals with the process of civic self-organization which takes place in Moscow at the beginning of the 20-th century. It examines the formation and activity of tens of societies with different aims, including scientific and technical, literary and educating, health service and philanthropic, etc. It gives the scientific classification of Moscow societies, characterizes the main directions of their activities, relations with the authorities, their influence on social-cultural atmosphere of the city and self consciousness of the citizens, formation of the public (obschestvennost`). The article is based on a wide variety of sources (archive documents, periodics, memoirs of state and public persons, intellectuals).

Science in the City: The Founding of the Moscow Polytechnical Museum

This article is devoted to one of imperial Russia’s learned societies, the Society of Friends of Science, Anthropology and Ethnography, or OLEAE by its Russian initials, and to its most visible enterprise, the Moscow Polytechnical Museum. Based primarily on the minutes of the meetings of OLEAE and of the museum organizing committee, the article attempts to rescue from oblivion both OLEAE and the Polytechnical Museum. The article examines the mission of the founders of OLEAE, the relationship between OLEAE and the government, and the role of a private association in the foundation of an enterprise on the scale of the Polytechnical Museum. The first part of the article places OLEAE and the museum in a larger European context. The grand museums of science, industry and the arts were a hallmark of the modern city and a vehicle for the dissemination of science, what economic historian Joel Mokyr calls the «industrial enlightenment.» They came about owing to the mobilization of resources by governments, associations, municipalities, the business community, and private philanthropists. To many contemporaries, such museums displayed the wonders of applied science and industrial design to the public. The second part of the article establishes the origins and mission of OLEAE. Founded in the heart of the Era of the Great Reforms by professors at Moscow University, OLEAE stated that its goal was public science, the «democratization of science.» Like many learned societies in imperial Russia, OLEAE received the endorsement and patronage of the government. For its part, OLEAE thought of its goals and those of the government as one in the same—the betterment of Russia. The last part of the article examines the founding and early years of the Polytechnical Museum, founded in 1872. The Polytechnical Museum became one component of a rapidly growing «scientific potential» of Russian society. The founders of the museum strove to disseminate applied knowledge by means of visibility and publicity. In the conclusion, I argue that the Polytechnical Museum was an ambitious enterprise that not only helped stimulate public science. Founded by scientists who framed their projects in terms of a public, the museum helped create a public. In the eyes of its founders, the Polytechnical Museum was a patriotic endeavor that enhanced national prestige and civic pride. It enabled Moscow to display distinction and gain recognition as a center of industry and learning. Finally, although OLEAE functioned within a very restricted framework, its many scientific enterprises encouraged private initiative. As the product of collaboration between private associations, the municipality, and the state, the museum was an example of a budding civil society in action.
The authors consider a key aspect of globalization, i.e. peculiarities of emergence of so called «glocal» territorial formations that are by far more integrated into the world economy than they are integrated in a national economy. It is noted that this trend will inevitably affect Russia. Thus the trend is to be taken into account in the long-term strategy of economic development right now. It is stated that as of now such strategy is virtually non-existent. The authors provide substantiation to the thesis that a balanced and progressive advance of Russia cannot be based exclusively on knowledge-intensive branches. The authors offer their definition of branches that can accumulate a considerable part of population under circumstances of economic activity liberalization and a drastic aggravation of international competition. Tourism which is the basis of social and economic development of many local formations (regions) as well as of states and has a powerful multiplicative effect on development of a number of related sectors is explored as one of such branches.

A Superfluous Man: Doctor G.I.Sokolski in the Mid-19th Century Moscow

The paradoxical expression «superfluous people» introduced into the literature by I.S.Turgenev was widely used by the Russian literary critics and in the Russian culture history became the generally accepted, even stereotyped term. In this article this notion is used to show-up the extraordinary personality and amazing destiny of G.I.Sokolski, an outstanding representative of the mid-19th century medical science and professor of the Moscow University. The authors for the first time involved in their analysis such sources as letters written by Sokolski and other persons who played decisive roles in his destiny. These letters are kept the Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts (RGALI), manuscripts department of the Russian State Library and in department of written sources of the State Historical Museum. The authors also draw in numerous materials of memoir literature that characterize not only the very hero of their narrative but also the university and urban environment.

A Superfluous Man: Doctor G.I.Sokolski in the Mid-19th Century Moscow (the end)

This part of the article is devoted to investigation of circumstances and reasons of G.I.Sokoloski's unexpected discharge from the university, his life as a popular Moscow private practitioner and the dull final of his life which ended up in a quarter of century long desolation. Unraveling barely visible tangle of university plot in accordance with the detective stories' laws the authors come to the conclusion that not debacle of universities during «the Nicholas reaction», not the banishment of ‘the spirit of materialism and freethinking' from universities but the restless mind, innovative and creative ambitions, a peevish, ‘thorny' characters, that is the very personality of Sokolski made him an inconvenient, unwanted figure for the higher authorities and predetermined his premature resignation. According to the authors, Skoloski belonged to a peculiar psychological type of natural scientists that were in a permanent discordance with the surrounding ambient. These were the out-of-season people. Such persons belong to the Future but are unwanted by the Present.

Consider «One's Own Business a Public Service»: the Early 20th Century Liberal-Centrists on Entrepreneurship

The author examines contribution of early 20th century Russian scientists and publicists who belonged to the Liberal-Centrists to making of the business social responsibility conception and characterizes main sources that prompted these people to accept the public mission of entrepreneurs. The author also analyzes these people’s notions of distribution of roles in the sphere of social responsibility within participants of «triangle» consisting of the power, business and society. The author’s attention is focused on persons who formed the circle that emerged around the «Vestnik Evropy» magazine and the «Russkie Vedomosti» newspaper and some other periodicals. The particular attention is devoted to views of V.G.Yarotsky and A.M.Rykachev whose names are emerging from the historical oblivion nowadays. Original and innovative character and relevance of the Russian Liberal-Centrists' opinions on importance of businessmen in Russia’s development is emphasized.
The purpose of the article is generalization of the basic results of research of the author over the last 5 years. The article defines historically developed motives of charity in Russia, allocates problems of development of charity connected mainly with standard-legal regulation of this activity, for assistance of development of corporate charity some recommendations are offered. The analysis of charity practice in Russia shows that charity starts to be used more and more as an element of the corporate strategy aimed to increase capitalization of companies. The merciful nature of charity keeps the value, but key features in modern charity are connected with «responsibility» and «efficiency».

Russia’s Centuries-Old Path to the Arctic Region

In this article the author makes an attempt to portray different stages of the Arctic policy of Russia, to show that Russia was historically deeply interconnected with the Arctic region, and to demonstrate continuity and novelty elements in the Russia’s Arctic policy. The author analyzes the Arctic policies of the Russian Empire, of the Soviet Union and of the Russian Federation.

The North of Russia is the Woodland: Exploitation and Protection of Forests in the 18th Century

The article is devoted to the problems of forest exploitation and protection at the North of Russia in the 18th century. During this period the region got the reputation of the greatest exporter and employer of forests, hard to be held under the control of central power. Though the research based on statistics data and proving that conclusions like that are a mistake, is more than 50 years old, the questions why this stereotype was formed stays without an answer. The materials used for this article provide us with the opportunity to say that the attention to the problems of local forests during the 18th century was constantly drawn by reports and complaints of local people, who used the rhetoric of official forest-protecting official documents, to gain own aims.

«Middle Ages Institution» or Innovation in the Spirit of the Reforms of Peter I? Сraft Guilds in Russia and Corporate Self Administration of Craftworkers on the Example of St. Petersburg from the Beginning of XVIII to the Beginning of XX Century

The introduction of guilds in Saint Petersburg in 1722 played an important role in the growth of the city’s handicrafts and corporate self-administration. With signs of development in the middle of the nineteenth century, a civic consciousness appeared in the guilds. Initiatives of the guild masters during the period of reform, demanding the right to choose permanent and non-permanent masters, were not supported by the state, which brought about institutional stagnation, in spite of considerable growth of guilds up to 1914.
Sytin was one of the most important figures of the publishing business at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Russia. This article gives us not only an analysis of his biography, but also shows the process of the development of the book publishing business and Sytin’s key role in it. The personality of the entrepreneur is considered in the complex and difficult historical context.

The Forests of the Volga in the Government Policy in the 18th Century

Volga region woods had strategic meaning for Russian Empire in the 18th century. Its ship groves provided the material for Russian navy. No wonder it was the region where Russian forestry started. Volga region was experienced the most of Peter 1st's restrictions, the hardness of procurement obligations. Forests of Kazan, Nizhni Novgorod, Voronezh provinces were the best known, the best specialists were sent there, the most attention was paid to keep these forests in order.

Tailor in St. Petersburg – Trendsetter in First Half 19th Century

Today, the profession of a tailor, masters of their craft and artist in one person to become prestigious. But long before this trend existed in St. Petersburg in the first half of the 19th century. How changing social and economic situation tailors in Petersburg for this time? The impact of fashion on the development of Handicrafts? What fashion trends, found its dissemination with the Westernization of Russia after the reforms of Peter the great. Petersburg as a European capital, famous for its luxury, attracted many tailors masters from Europe, which has led to a remarkable symbiosis and the flourishing of the tailor’s craft in the 19th century.

«…He Was a Great Lover of Luxury and Splendor»: Saint-Petersburg Tailor of the 18th Century

The history of Imperial Russia began not only with new army and navy, but also with the new clothes. Growth to the new capital of the Russian Empire, St. Petersburg, on the one hand, absorbed the Moscow experience of cooperation with foreign experts from the German Slobode of the 17th century, on the other hand, was an experimental space in which to generate new knowledge and experience sharing to a new level. The tailors of Petersburg were supposed to supply the population of a large city with European clothes: nobility, burghers, craftworker and merchants, the Royal court, the army and navy. The presence of many foreign tailors in St. Petersburg strongly influenced the development of tailor’s and resulted in a major fashion center in Russia in the 18th century.

«Open the Gateway to Well-Being for Natural Talents»? The Estate Problem in Educational Reforms Drafts Suggested by I.I.Shuvalov and M.V.Lomonosov at the Turn of the 1750s and 1760s

The article deals with the solution of the problem of integration of educational institutions in a estate society of Russian empire, proposed in the projects of I.I.Shuvalov and M.V.Lomonosov at the turn of 50−60-ies of XVIII c. Shuvalov and Lomonosov in 1760−1761 were in a situation of confrontation. For Lomonosov educational institutions should strive to teach gifted children, regardless of their social status. According to Shuvalov, the planned system of schools and gymnasiums was intended only for the children of the nobility, because they were supposed to govern due to their noble birth.

Политика Екатерины II в сфере лесного хозяйства. Упразднение контроля ради частного интереса?

С XIX в. в историографии утвердился тезис о том, что во время правления Екатерины II закончилась начатая Петром I политика охраны лесов с целью сохранения ценного природного ресурса для последующего развития флота и промышленного производства. Императрица считала необходимым развивать частную инициативу, а государственные монополии (в т.ч. на пользование лесами) – неперспективными для развития экономики. Однако рассматриваемые в статье материалы показывают, что такая категоричная оценка однобока и неверна. При отказе от репрессивных методов Екатерина II уделяла много внимания проблемам лесного хозяйства: организации охраны лесов, описанию, научному изучению, составлению нового «Устава о лесах». Увеличение вырубок лесов при ее правлении действительно произошло, но оно было обусловлено не столько собственно изменениями в законодательстве и попустительством, сколько ростом населения и неверным толкованием законов.

Проблема дороговизны дров в Петербурге XVIII века

С первых дней своей жизни Санкт-Петербург требовал огромного количества древесины. Дороговизна дров стала острой проблемой для жителей молодого города. В статье рассматриваются причины и способы, предлагавшиеся для решения вопроса – попытки государственного регулирования торговли дровами и ограничения экспорта, просветительские публикации, предложения использовать особые конструкции печей и альтернативные виды топлива. Особое внимание уделено работе комиссии 1783 г., целью работы которой было решение проблемы дороговизны дров в столице.

По следам отшумевших юбилеев. Развитие исторической памяти о М.В.Ломоносове

Имя М.В.Ломоносова занимает значимое место в символическом пространстве, играет важную роль в формировании национальной идентичности и самосознания. Отчасти его образ формировался под влиянием печатных изданий и официальной идеологии. Не всегда идеи, пропагандировавшиеся властью и средствами массовой информации, попадали на благоприятную почву. Историческая память избирательна и вариативна. Данная статья является первым опытом обзора изменения образа М.В.Ломоносова в материалах прессы.

30 Years in the State Institute for the Higher Education Institutions Designing

The abridged version of a chapter taken from recollection of Natalia Menchinskaya, an architect and a writer relates peculiarities of atmosphere and creative life in a major architecture and designing institution, “Giprovouz” where the author worked for 30 years. Like major part of similar institutions, “Giprovouz” ceased to exist upon the perestroika.

The Proletarian University: Ideas and Practice

The article deals with the history of origin and attempts to implement the idea of A.A.Bogdanov about the Proletarian University as one of the means of mastering the proletarian culture by working class. The task of Proletarian University is not to provide students with fragments of knowledge, but to give them a general idea about the system of modern scientific knowledge, to show the interrelation of different branches of science, to teach basic methods of cognition. The idea of the Proletarian University was first formulated by A.A.Bogdanov in 1911, and the first attempt to implement it and at the same time its first prototype was the party schools for workers in Capri and Bologna.
keywords: proletarian culture, party school for workers, Alexander Bogdanov, Proletarian university