Technocratic mentality started to form gradually since the second part of the 19th century. The most famous European physicians stated that the crisis of humane medicine arrived after the WWI and the increasing dehumanization of medical activity came after the WWII. Nowadays the process seems to acquire irreversible character. A doctor and a patient have proved to be on different sides of the barricade built of technical achievements and hardened by impregnable technocratic mentality.
The End of the Pirogov Society
The most authoritative in the Russian empire the Pirogov society of doctors was established in December of 1885. It carried on regular congresses of doctors and occasional meetings with the collective discussions of every medical problem. After events of October, 1917, the board of society called doctors to boycott the Soviet instititons. In May of 1922 the Pirogov society members made the public protest against severe exploitation of the medical labor, humiliating labor duty and arbitrariness of medical establishments' administration. In summer of 1922 the Pirogov society was closed down and some of its members were deported to the Northern and Eastern regions of Russia or exiled to West Europe.
Anna Akhmatova under Surveillance of the MGB
In August, 1946, A.A.Zhdanov, the Secretary of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) launched the campaign against dissent and nonconformity in the Soviet literature. Zhdanov chose literary magazines «Zvezda» and «Leningrad» as well as M.M.Zoschenko, the writer, and A.A.Akhmatova as and his main targets. Preparing his huge report A.A.Zhdanov used the reference cited below and produced by the Ministry of State Security Department for Leningrad region.
Metaphysics of Boycott in Moscow University
Conflict situations that occurred in Moscow University in the late 19th century and were caused by insistent urge of medical department students to assert their rights to the full-fledged higher education and to get instruction from worthy and respected teachers. These situations are investigated on the grounds of archive materials, first of all, on the basis of Moscow law protection department’s files. The article describes how the most famous Moscow therapeutist, distinguished ordinary Professor G.A.Zakhar'in had to resign in result of students' boycott.
A Superfluous Man: Doctor G.I.Sokolski in the Mid-19th Century Moscow
The paradoxical expression «superfluous people» introduced into the literature by I.S.Turgenev was widely used by the Russian literary critics and in the Russian culture history became the generally accepted, even stereotyped term. In this article this notion is used to show-up the extraordinary personality and amazing destiny of G.I.Sokolski, an outstanding representative of the mid-19th century medical science and professor of the Moscow University. The authors for the first time involved in their analysis such sources as letters written by Sokolski and other persons who played decisive roles in his destiny. These letters are kept the Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts (RGALI), manuscripts department of the Russian State Library and in department of written sources of the State Historical Museum. The authors also draw in numerous materials of memoir literature that characterize not only the very hero of their narrative but also the university and urban environment.
A Superfluous Man: Doctor G.I.Sokolski in the Mid-19th Century Moscow (the end)
This part of the article is devoted to investigation of circumstances and reasons of G.I.Sokoloski's unexpected discharge from the university, his life as a popular Moscow private practitioner and the dull final of his life which ended up in a quarter of century long desolation. Unraveling barely visible tangle of university plot in accordance with the detective stories' laws the authors come to the conclusion that not debacle of universities during «the Nicholas reaction», not the banishment of ‘the spirit of materialism and freethinking' from universities but the restless mind, innovative and creative ambitions, a peevish, ‘thorny' characters, that is the very personality of Sokolski made him an inconvenient, unwanted figure for the higher authorities and predetermined his premature resignation. According to the authors, Skoloski belonged to a peculiar psychological type of natural scientists that were in a permanent discordance with the surrounding ambient. These were the out-of-season people. Such persons belong to the Future but are unwanted by the Present.
A Case of Malicious Unreliability
The article deals with an episode of D.D.Pletnev, prominent Russian physician and one of founders of cardiology. Liberal opinion D. Pletnev held from his young years were well known. In spring of 1907, when Pletnev was a private associate professor of Moscow university Ministry of popular education allocated funds necessary for his long-term mission abroad. About six months later when the German police by a mistake acquired serious doubts in political reliability of Pletnev who carried on research in University of Berlin. However these doubts were dispelled with no harm for the suspect. Nevertheless correspondence between the German and Russian police chiefs went on for about 5 months and these messages are deposited in the Police department and Moscow security department archives.