Russian Transport and Logistic Initiatives in the South Caucasus
The main problems of the renewal of the railway communication between Armenia and Turkey are considered. The role of Russia as the initiator of the renewal of communication between the countries in 2008-2009 was revealed. In this regard, the peculiarities of the development of the project of the creation of the international transportation and logistics center (ILC) "Akhuryan" on the Armenian-Turkish border are analyzed. Based on the study of archival materials, the historical prerequisites of the project are revealed. Particular attention is paid to the problems of the functioning of the Russian railways in Armenia due to the limited integration opportunities. The main technical, economic and geopolitical problems of the ILC project are identified.
KEYWORDS: Armenia; Turkey; railway; logistics center; Russian railways; integration.
FRG’s Policy on Water Resources Management in the Central Asian Region
The article examines Germany’s water policy in the Central Asian region. The reasons for Germany's special interest in this region are highlighted, as well as the peculiarities of the German approach to the problem of improving the efficiency of water resources management. Given the important geostrategic position of Central Asia modern Germany actively promoted the development and deepening of the «enhanced political dialogue» with the countries of the region, initiated the adoption of the Strategy for Central Asia for the period 2007–2013. Within the framework of that Strategy Germany launched Water Initiative for the region. The implementation of the Water Initiative demonstrates Germany’s serious long-term intentions in the Central Asian direction, specifically in the water sector, as well as Germany’s desire to make full use of the EU’s resources and «brand» in order to strengthen its own positions in the region.
KEYWORDS: Germany’s policy; Central Asia; water resources; EU’s Strategy for Central Asia; German water initiative.
Pages of History
Crimea in the German "Eastern policy": the Main Changes in the Context of the Occupations of 1918 and 1941–1944
The article analyzes the changes in the German "Eastern policy" that occurred between the two world wars. These changes are traced by the example of two occupation of the Crimean peninsula in 1918 and 1941–1944. Based on a wide range of sources and literature identified the aspects, the study of which contributes to the identification of the main trends in changes in the German "Eastern policy". The goals and tasks of the German military and political leadership regarding the Crimea during both occupation, the administrative forms of the management of the occupied territories, the attitude of the population to the occupiers and the occupiers to the population. On the example of such demonstrations of this attitude as collaborationism, Resistance Movement, terror, the national factor, the conclusion that the German "Eastern policy" remained practically unchanged throughout the first half of the XX century. However varied its methods, which was due to Nazi ideology, and also the fact that in contrast to 1918 and in 1941–1944 of the Crimean population represented a very different community – the Soviet people.
KEYWORDS: Crimea, occupation, German «Eastern policy», 1st Regional government, Collaboration, Soviet man.
În Some Aspects of the "Leningrad Affair"
In an article in the previous issue of this journal, A.V.Sushkov observes that a full study of the causes of the "Leningrad Affair" does not exist. He focuses on two accusations that were leveled against the Leningrad leaders: their attempts to create a Russian communist party or a RSFSR bureau within the all-union party's Central Committee, and their falsification of the results of elections to the city and provincial committees in December 1948 at a conference of the Lenin-grad party organization. This article examines these little-studied aspects of the "Leningrad Affair" and demonstrates that they did not cause the removal of the Leningrad leaders so much as they provided a justification to do so.
KEYWORDS: "The Leningrad affair"; RCP(b); party and state systems of power; "late Stalinism"; administrative practices.
LABEL AND MYTHS
Barbarian World Through Civilized Eyes. (On the Question of Cross-Cultural Influences)
As it might be judged by the title, the article deals with archaic and rather hazy subject, i.e. how the ancient Greek and Roman writers perceived barbarian world around them. But this is not the only thing the article is about. The author makes an attempt to find the roots of what might be named a paradox. The question is: why the people of the civilized Empires, with their highly arrogant and fastidious attitude towards the surrounding "savages", could not resist the temptation to deliriously imitate their ways and mores, turning this primitive stuff into a part of every-day life?
KEYWORDS: Greek and Latin civilizations; ancient historians; cultural contact-zones; North Caucasus; huns, scythians, alans.
Mentality. Strivings for Cultural Wealth
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The Current Historiography: History as Self-Consciousness. On A.L.Yurganov's Book "The Cultural History of Russia. The 20th Century"
A historian-specialist in the Middle Ages addresses the 20th century subjects. Initially as a researcher of historiography, of the world that surrounded historians of the Stalin’s period, and later on as a researcher of culture, ideology, literary criticism, and artistic manifestoes. That is unusual path and this path characterizes scientific exploration search of A.L.Yurganov, expert in Russian Medieval culture and at the same time a researcher of culture, humdrum and everyday background of the past age. Now the author of the new book (collection of articles written in various years) is preoccupied with the general sense meaning of the intellectual history that, as a peculiar world, stems from the everyday life world. This world was common for people who occupied one side and for those who held totally opposite positions. The reviewers muse over the method employed by the historian in the new book and over the peculiar point of the 20th century cultural history.
KEYWORDS: historiography; history of culture; everyday life world; objectivism; positivism, self-consciousness; personality; Modernism; the proletarian art and state; the Left Front of Arts; Proletkult, imaginism; fellow travelers; Stalinism.
Karl Heinrich Marx: From Philosophy and Ideology to Political Economy and Natural Science
With publication of Marx's manuscripts and excerpts including his extracts from numerous books on natural science and mathematics as a part of MEGA (Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe) a new stage begins in studies of Marx's philosophy, political economy and methodology. The sources of Marx's philosophical method can’t be focused on German classical philosophy only and his method of research can't be reduced to materialistic dialectics alone. Marx was in mainstream of scientific life of his epoch in whole. His research approach was influenced not only by philosophy, but also by methodology of classical political economy and natural science as well. Admitting the theorization methods of the XIX century science Marx reasoned consonant with the naturalists of that era. That fact predetermined the destiny of alienation concept in the Capital, which became irrelevant as key element of Capital’s structure.
KEYWORDS: K.Marx, "Capital", natural science, philosophy, methodology, alienation, excerpt, manuscript.
Liberal Centrist Vladimir Kuzmin-Karavayev: "The State Should Go Before Its Citizens, Leading Them Towards Law, Truth and Freedom"
The article presents a "portrait against the background of epoch": the profile of V.D.Kuz'min-Karavaev (1859–1927), military justice officer, the active participant of the Zemstvo movement, member of the 1st and the 2nd State Duma, participant of events that took place in 1917, and the active personality of the Russian émigré community abroad. By his political opinions he be-longed to the centrist current of the Russian liberalism (conditionally speaking, he occupied position between the Constitutional-Democrats and the Octyabrists and a peculiar position in the Russian multiparty system of the early 20th century. In 1906–1907 Kuz'min-Karavaev was one of the Democratic Reforms party, a member of the Progressive Party Central Committee in 1912. Kuz'min-Karavaev's position on the most important issues of the Russian life and perception of his ideas by coevals are reconstructed and characterized on the basis of various sources.
KEYWORDS: V.D.Kuz'min-Karavaev; school and politics (discussion held in 1900); centrism in the Russian liberalism of the early 20th century; the 1st and the 2nd State Duma; Progressism and the problem of nationalism; the Great October revolution of 1917; the Russian community abroad.
"It Would Make Sense to Publish These Letters Quickly in Light of Theirenormous Value...". D.B.Ryazanov and the Publication of Marx. 1931
This introduction and document publication reveals an unknown episode in the biography of D.B.Riazanov after his arrest in February 1931—his letters to the journal "Bolshevik" and the Central Committee Politburo regarding the publication of a letter of Marx to his daughter in 1881. The publication of Riazanov's two letters from 11 and 12 April 1931 and E.L.Gurevich's letter shed light on the history of the formation of the archival collections of the Marx Engels Institute, and in particular the history of the text of Marx's letter. The letters of V.V.Adoratskii published here from 29 March and 2 June 1931 uncover the political meaning of the Marx letters that Riazanov had "hidden", as well as the motives behind the removal of Riazanov from the post of Marx Engels Institute rector.
KEYWORDS: Marx Engels Institute, D.B.Riazanov, V.V.Adoratskii, stalinization of the historical sciences, the K.Marx archival collection, Marxist studies, publication of Marx.
RUSSIA XXI, 02.2018