System of Coordinates
The author deals with theoretical and practical aspects of the conceptual analytics and with its heuristic potential. The conceptual analytics is based not only on adequate description of a phenomenon but also on examination of geopolitical reality from the conceptual system of co-ordinates standpoint. The conceptual analytics is not fascinated with pseudo-theories and it is not inclined to primitive quasi-conceptualization. The conceptual analytics is quite compatible with sober positivism and has to supplement this positivism and not to oppose it. That said it is important to distinguish adequate notions as instruments of correct analysis from notions loaded with ideology. Within frameworks of genuine conceptualization not only models established by F.Fukuyama and S.Huntington but destinies of the Modern projects are discussed. At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries this project’s destiny has turned out to be open to question. However the very future of humankind and preservation of such urge sing as the ‘life instinct’ depend on ability to realize the alternative of Super Modern. For ultimately the point at issue is in what world we will live further.
KEYWORDS: Radical Islam; global terror; the theory of plot; the Modern; the post-Modern; the counter-Modern.
Geopolitics and International Policy Issues
The Post is Surrendered. The DDR’s Last Year. Extracts from Diaries of the Advisor-envoy of the USSR Embassy in Berlin (the end)
Apart from internal causes of the aggravation of the GDR crisis, there were also external ones. The FRG spared no effort to accelerate the unification by absorbing the weaker East German republic. The options of creating a new state for all Germans (this necessitated the adoption of a new constitution and a new name) or of having an all-German referendum, which could underline the democratic nature of the unification process, were rejected. Those who believed in the convergence of the two German states as equals looked to the USSR, an ally of the GDR. But the Soviet Union shifted to the support of the FRG position. And forgot its own security interest. It is only ten years later that the new FRG and the new Russia managed to establish equal relations of co-operation and understanding that are vital for the prosperity of the whole of Europe.
KEYWORDS: the unification of Germany; the government of Hans Modrov; the government of Lotara de Mezera; chancellor Helmut Kohl; the German elections on 18 March 1990; the Western Berlin; the ñonclusion of Armies from Germany; the Western group of Armies; negotiations "two plus four".
The Summit of Unrealized Possibilities
In June 1961 at the first meeting of N.S.Khrushchev and John F.Kennedy in Vienna there were real possibilities to start with a nuclear test ban agreement in order to begin the lessening of international tension and solving the Berlin crises. But instead of the concrete discussions of these urgent problems the leaders of the two superpowers were involved in general talks with no attempts to solve them. The result of the Vienna summit was the decision in the Kremlin to brake the moratorium, to start nuclear tests, making the most powerful explosion at Novaya Zemlya proving ground. The author who was the witness of these events writing in detail and making a systematic and holistic analysis why and how it had happened.
KEYWORDS: The Viennese Summit; Khruschev; Kennedy; the international safety, an easing of international tension; prohibition of tests of the nuclear weapon; the Berlin crisis; negotiations in Geneva; the Political bureau; the Note in the Central Committee.
Mentality. Strivigs for Cultural Wealth
Palee Sensible. The Legend about Falling of Sataniil
In article one of the challenges in the history of philosophy and divinity – a problem of occurrence and evil existence is investigated. On a considerable quantity example Slavic medieval texts it is shown, how the problem of occurrence of evil in the world dared. The great attention is given Palee Sensible and a legend about falling of Satanail thanks to which representations of our Ancient Russian ancestors about the evil nature were formed. In conformity with tradition Ancient Russian scribes interpreted evil as «non-existence» which did not enter into a plan of the Creator about the world. On concrete texts it is shown that angrily it is not involved in an order of things that it not independent ontologic essence, and result of distortion of life and the spiritual conditions of people connected with it. Malicious and the sin which has come with it in monuments of Ancient Russian writing are considered as «illness» of free will which owing to a human nature is inclined to accept its phantom for good. Are reconstructed based on bible postulates dogma installations according to which evil is considered as a reality only in consequences strong-willed actions of the created subjects which contrary to a divine plan and give existence to evil in the world.
KEYWORDS: Good; Evil; the Fall of man; the legend about falling of Satanail; the Devil; Evilony; Finiteness; the Universum; the Person; the Reality; Substance.
Pages of History
The Deformed and Decadent Modern Self: Public Discourse on the Urban Self in Russia, 1906-1916
Urban writers in prerevolutionary Russia, even those writing in mass-circulation newspapers, sounded a persistent alarm about the moral and spiritual condition of the self in the “conditions of modernity”. They described the present as an age of sickness and decline. This decadent history was embodied in quite concrete forms (such as worries about modern sexual life or the “epidemic” of suicides) and in quite abstract feelings and thoughts. In particular, at the heart of talk about the fate of the person in the modern life of the city, notably in St. Petersburg, was a pessimistic view of time itself: an anxiety that the modern myth of time as “progress”, the promise of continual change for the better, was falling into ruin. At issue was not simply Russian “backwardness” but also the intensifying experience of urban modernity. Given the harshness of the Russian experience, Russian urban observers were especially aware of the dark and destructive sides of modernity.
KEYWORDS: self; decadence; city; modernity; immorality; debauchery; sex; disenchantment; suicide; time.
The First Step in de-Stalinization of the Historical Science
The author investigates the situation in the Russian historical science after Stalin’s death. The critical attitude toward the historical science was most vividly demonstrated at the supreme level conference held at the Presidium of the USSR Academy of science on March 20, 1953. The main topic expounded in speech of A.L.Sidorov, the deputy Director of the Institute of history was recognition of genius of Stalin’s work and the total failure of the historical science. The greatest blow was directed not against some particular person or even a group of persons. It was directed against Leningrad department of the Institute of history. Critics were going to liquidate Leningrad department due to its uselessness. The ideological machine could not stop immediately. However the disclosing hue was changing with the course of time. The official circles settled down to a course of the historical science gradual de-Stalinization. An example of this trend was preparation of materials for the summarizing article of A.M.Pankratova, one of the principal ideologists of the time. Many ideological exigencies were gradually smoothed over at the various stages of this preparation.
KEYWORDS: de-Stalinization; historical science; ideological campaign; Marxism-Leninism.
Grand Strategy of the USSR after WWII by the Eyes of the British Intelligence
The publication is devoted to estimates of Soviet strategic interests produced by the British intelligence toward the end of WWII. These documents from Britain’s National Archives are primarily interesting because of their fairly objective and comprehensive analysis of Soviet postwar security requirements and a rather accurate forecast of future Soviet policy in pursuit of those interests. The Soviet sphere of influence as outlined in these estimates is quite close to and sometimes even exceeds the actual geopolitical requests made by Stalin by the end of WWII. This implicit recognition of legitimacy of the Soviet geopolitical desiderata contradicts the conventional thesis that the Soviet Union after the war went far beyond its legitimate security interests and thus provoked the Cold War with the West.
KEYWORDS: World War II; Soviet security; Soviet security interests and policy; Stalin; borders and spheres of influence.
The Energy Policy and Diplomacy of Azerbaijan Republic
The article is dedicated to the energy policy and diplomacy of Azerbaijan Republic. It deals with the main elements of the national oil and gas diplomacy of the country. Implementation of Heydar Aliyev’s energy strategy, also the guaranteed transportation of the country’s energy resources to world markets, by means of reaching laid the firm basis of Azerbaijan’s development.
KEYWORDS: energy policy and diplomacy; energy strategy; «Contract of the Century».
RUSSIA XXI, 05.2010